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Decimus Junius Juvenal

Decimus Junius Juvenal – was a roman author renowned for his satirical works. He was born into a wealthy family in the year 55 AD in southeastern Italy and received a good education. He is believed to have died around 132 AD in Rome.

Bust presumably of Decimus Junius Juvenal. 2nd century AD

He began his literary career around 100 AD, prior to which he held a position as a military tribune, practiced oratory, and participated in local governance. He started writing his first satires during the reign of emperor Trajan. The satires were collected into so-called "books," of which five were published. The last book was released in 132 AD, around the same time when Juvenal is presumed to have passed away. Over a span of more than 30 years of his career, he wrote 16 satirical works, divided into five books (1-5; 6; 7-9; 10-12; 13-16).

The chronology of the publication of the books is uncertain. The approximate release dates are as follows:

It is likely that Juvenal's death occurred around 131-132 AD.

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Marcus Ulpius Nerva Trajan, Marcus Ulpius Nerva Trajan