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Mithridates of Evpator

Багерман А.Я.

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Mithridates

Mithridates VI Eupator, also known as Dionysus (132-63 BC), king of Pontus in 117-63 BC, went down in history as a formidable and powerful opponent of Rome, who almost managed to destroy Rome's power in Asia Minor and the Black Sea region during three wars. But in the end, he lost and in order not to become a prisoner of the Romans, ordered his bodyguard to kill him with a sword.

He died in Panticapaea (now the modern city of Kerch, Republic of Crimea, Russia), on the acropolis, which was located at that time on the mountain that dominated the city. After a while, the mountain on which Mithridates died was renamed Mithridatova in his honor.

Bust of Mithridates the Great, aka Mithridates VI Eupator. Located in the Louvre Museum, Paris. The bust was made in the Hellenistic period (4th-1st century BC).

The Kingdom of Pontus

The Pontic Kingdom (Pontus) is a Hellenistic state in the central, northern and northeastern part of the peninsula of Asia Minor, located on the southern coast of the Euxine Pontus (Black Sea). The Pontic Kingdom existed in the IV-I centuries BC (302-63 BC).

The Kingdom of Pontus was bordered to the west by Bithynia (on the Black Sea coast) and Paphlagonia in the interior of the continent, to the southwest by Phrygia (later Galatia), to the south by Greater Cappadocia, to the southeast by Armenia Minor, and to the east by Colchis.

Greeks, Cappadocians, Paphlagonians, Phrygians, Armenians, and Iranians lived in this state.

The official language of the state was Greek.

There were many minerals in the country, especially metals, and in the Pontic mountains they were engaged in cattle breeding, agriculture was developed in some areas, and the inhabitants of the country were also engaged in trade.

Pontus was ruled by kings from the Mithridatid dynasty. Pontus reached its peak during the reign of Mithridates VI Eupator; after his defeat, Pontus gradually began to decline, greatly reduced in its territories in favor of the neighboring Roman provinces.

In Pontus, after the death of Mithridates VI Eupator, the western part of the Pontic Kingdom was torn away by Rome for the newly created provinces of Bithynia and Pontus, and in the East a new Polemanid dynasty began to rule, under which Pontus, greatly reduced in its territories, played the role of a buffer state between Rome and Parthia. In 63 AD, the Roman Emperor Nero

(reigned 54-68) incorporated the remaining Pontic territories into the Roman province of Galatia.

Map of the Kingdom of Pontus and its expansion

Brief biography of Mithridates VI Eupator

Mithridates was born in the city of Sinope (now the city of Sinope in Northern Turkey), which at that time belonged to the Kingdom of Pontus.

Mithridates had two nicknames: Eupator and Dionysus.

The nickname Evpator meant " born of a glorious father."

He received the nickname Dionysus in early childhood, when lightning struck his cradle, igniting diapers, but not harming the baby. It was reminiscent of the myth of the ancient Greek god Dionysus, and in memory of this incident, the ruler left a small scar on his forehead.

The ancestors of Mithridates VI were representatives of the most noble Macedonian and Persian families. His father was King Mithridates V Euergetes of Pontus, who himself in turn was the heir of King Pharnaces I of Pontus, who through his parents was related to King Darius III of Persia. The mother of Mithridates VI was Laodice VI, daughter of the Seleucid ruler Antiochus IV, who among his ancestors had one of the generals and diadochs of Alexander the Great – Antiochus I Soter, the creator and first ruler of the Seleucid state.

He believed in Zoroastrianism, but sometimes, especially when it suited him, he also worshipped Zeus the Warrior or simply Zeus, the main God of the Greek pantheon of gods.

In addition to Mithridates VI, Mithridates V and Laodice VI also had a younger son, Mithridates Chresta.

Mithridates VI was raised in a combination of Greek and Persian education. From the Greeks he received manners, knowledge of Greek culture, literature and religion, and from the Persians he received, combining with the Greek, military exercises and skills, he also learned to ride a horse and loved to hunt wild animals.

Mithridates ' contemporaries were struck by his tall stature and strength. He knew all the languages of his numerous kingdom and communicated with each of the subjects fluently in their language – and this is for a moment 22-25 languages. He was cruel and insidious, hypocritical, like any tyrant of the East of those years, but at the same time he loved and helped develop Greek art, literature and philosophy.

His father died in 120 BC, and his sons were still young, so their mother Laodice VI became the regent of the Pontic kingdom, which of the two brothers singled out Chrestos more, as a result of which, fearing for his life, Mithridates VI fled, according to one version, to the impassable mountains of Pontus, according to the other to the king of Armenia Minor - Antipater.

So he lived for 7 years as an exile ( from 11 to 18 years).

During his flight, Mithridates was forced to wander in the mountains of Pontus and beyond, and at the same time he learned to endure difficulties and developed an antidote for many poisons in his body. for fear of being poisoned, he took some poison of various types.

In 113 BC, Mithridates returned to Pontus and took his father's throne, becoming king of Pontus, under the name of Mithridates VI Eupator. He arrested his mother and younger brother. They soon died in prison, and were, by order of Mithridates VI, buried with royal honors.

Mithridates VI had many concubines, and he himself was married 5 times and had a child from almost every spouse, and even 5 children from the first spouse, and this does not count the children born from his numerous concubines.

During his reign, Mithridates moved to expand the borders of his state, sometimes acting through diplomacy, somewhere through dynastic marriages, and somewhere openly annexing (seizing) the territories of his neighbors.

Mithridates VI was able to annex Paphlagonia to the Pontic Kingdom in 107 BC; Bosporus Kingdom in 108/107 BC; Colchis and part of western Armenia in 104/103 BC.

This eventually led to a struggle with Rome. With Rome, he spent 3 wars, but during the last 3-th war, he was betrayed by his beloved son Pharnaces and he lost to the Romans, and in order not to become their prisoner, he ordered his bodyguard to kill him with a sword.

Pont. Mithridates VI. Tetradrachm G (87-86 BC). Weight-16.88 g; d – 33 mm. Callatay — D1/R1A. According to Hoover, the degree of rarity is R1. Private meeting.

War with Rome

Causes of wars:

From the Roman Republic: territorial expansion of the borders of the Roman Republic in Asia Minor. Prevent the loss of territories in Greece and Asia Minor. Economic policy for trade and tax development.

From the Kingdom of Pontus: the expansion of the territory of the Kingdom of Pontus and the creation of a great power in the East, led by him as an absolute monarch. To achieve this goal, he had to

conquer both the local rulers and knock Rome out of the territories in the East where it managed to settle (the province of Asia). Because of this, Mithridates VI tried to unite all the anti-Roman forces in the Middle East and the Balkan Peninsula in order to dislodge Rome from Asia Minor and Greece.

Generals of Rome and Pontus who participated in the Mithridatic Wars:

Military leaders of Rome and allies of Rome: Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Lucius Licinius Lucullus, Gnaeus Pompey the Great; Ariobarzanes I Philoromanes king of Cappadocia in 95-63 / 62 BC, was also a relative of Mithridates VI – married to one of his daughters; Bruttius Sura; Lucius Licinius Murena; Aulus Gabinius; Flavius Hadrian; Gaius Valerius Triaria.

Military leaders and Pontic allies of Mithridates VI: Mithridates VI Eupator; Archelaus; Manian; Taxi; Arcavi (one of the sons of Mithridates, he died during the war); the tyrant of Athens Artinian (died after the capture of Athens troops L. K. sulla in 86 BC); the Governor of Bithynia Nycomed, who later defected to the Romans; the rulers of Cappadocia Ararat VI and VII Ararat; Corioli; Mahar (one of the sons of Mithridates, who would later rebel against father and die); Mithridates (one of the sons of Mithridates VI, ruler of Cappadocia, father executed for suspicion of treason); Quintus Sertorius, a partisan of g.Marius, who will rebel against the supporters of L. K. Sulla in Spain and negotiate cooperation with Mithridates VI and even send one of his assistants to Pontus to train Pontic troops in Roman technology and methods; Tigranes II, the Great ruler of Greater Armenia; Pharnaces (one of the sons of Mithridates, who at the end of the 3rd Mithridatic War rebelled against his father, he also inherited the remnants of the Pontic kingdom, after Mithridates ' death).

Similarly, Mithridates in his struggle with Rome, for money, was helped by Mediterranean pirates, primarily Cilician.

In addition, Mithridates himself had a strong navy and numerous land armies.

Antique coin of the first century BC depicting the King of Great Armenia Tigran II the Great. Private collection.

The First Mithridatic War (89-85 BC)

Mithridates, aware of the situation in Rome – there was first an Allied war, and then a civil war broke out between Gaius Marius and Lucius Cornelius Sulla, decided to take advantage of the situation and declare war on Rome.

Using as an excuse the attack of the Roman ally King Nicomedes IV of Bithynia on the border areas of the Pontic kingdom, in 89 BC Mithridates declared war on Rome.

His allies in this war were the Mediterranean pirates, the population of the Balkan Peninsula dissatisfied with the power of Rome, and his son-in-law, King Tigran II of Armenia.

As a result, the army of Mithridates VI consisted of about 250 thousand infantry, 40 thousand cavalry, including 130 war chariots, and about 400 warships.

At the beginning of the war, Mithridates was able to capture Bithynia, Phrygia, Paphlagonia, making them part of the Pontic kingdom.

So that the local population and the nobility would support him, he everywhere announced the restoration of freedom and self-government in the cities, freed the slaves, announced the addition of arrears and exempted them from taxes for five years.

He was also able to gain naval control with the help of his fleet of the entire eastern Mediterranean. He also managed to capture Asia Minor, except for its southwestern part and the island of Rhodes.

After that, Mithridates began to trust the command of his generals.

He sent Archelaus, his general, at the head of the army to Greece. In Greece, Archelaus was able to capture the island of Delos, in Laconia and Boeotia, local residents joined him.

In Athens, with the help of Mithridates in 88 BC, his supporter Aristinion came to power.

Finally, in Rome, Sulla was able to defeat Marius and went at the head of 30 thousand troops to Greece for war with Mithridates and his generals.

Sulla landed in Epirus in the spring of 87 BC, replenished his food supplies there, gathered money and allies to wage war with Archelaus, and marched into Central Greece, the Attica region. Here, in addition to Thebes, he was able to liberate all of Greece from the troops of Archelaus, who, along with Aristio, took refuge in Athens and its port city of Pyrus. Sulla, pursuing them, divided his army, sent a part to besiege Athens itself, and sent another part to besiege the "mouth of Athens" port city of Piraeus.

During the siege of Athens and Piraeus, needing money to pay his legionaries and wood to build siege engines and towers, Sulla committed the sacrilege of plundering all the Greek temples nearby Athens, seizing all the riches and cutting down some of the sacred groves.

Piraeus and Athens held out through the winter of 87/86 BC, but in March 86 BC, due to famine, Athens surrendered. Sulla gave the city to his army to plunder, and Aristinion and his supporters were executed.

Piraeus also soon fell, shortly before Archelaus was able to escape from it to Thessaly.

In Thessaly, Archelaus was able to gather the remnants of his army and combine them with the reinforcements that arrived from Pontus, which another general of Mithridates Taxilus brought to him, which increased the number of his troops to 120 thousand people.

Sulla was hesitant to pursue Archelaus, who now had more troops than he did, or to go to Rome, where a coup took place in favor of Gaius Marius, who had returned from exile, and a supporter of Marius, the consul of 86 BC, Lucius Valerius Flaccus, was sent to replace Sulla with 2 legions.

But in the end, even before Flaccus arrived, Sulla decided to give battle to Archelaus and won it. The battle took place at Chaeronea in 86 BC, the place where in 338 BC all of Greece, after a fierce battle, also submitted to Alexander's father, Philip II of Macedon.

Learning of the defeat of the armies of Archelaus and Toxilus, Mithridates gathered a new army led by Dorileus and sent it through Thrace to Macedonia to help the defeated Archelaus and Taxilus. Dorileus entered Boeotia, where he joined the remnants of the army of Archelaus and Taxilus. In Boeotia, near the town of Orchomene, in the autumn of 86 BC, another battle took place between the generals of Mithridates and Sulla. As a result, in a stubborn battle, Sulla was able to defeat his Pontic opponents again. Archelaus fled to Chalcis. Sulla, having sacked Boeotia, remained to winter 86/85 BC in Thessaly, where he began to build a fleet.

At this time, the army of Valerius Flaccus captured Byzantium and crossed over to Asia Minor, where he was openly supported by the nobles dissatisfied with the policy of Mithridates, who, moreover, to maintain his power over Asia Minor, switched from dithyrambs to cruelty and executions.

But due to Flack's poor discipline and lack of authority among his soldiers, his army soon mutinied and killed him. The new commander was one of Flaccus ' legates, Gaius Flavius Fimbria.

Fimbria was able to restore order in the army and inflicted a number of defeats on Mithridates.

At the same time, in the spring of 85 BC, a fleet built by Sulla appeared in the Aegean Sea, commanded by Sulla's Quaestor, Lucius Licinius Lucullus.

Mithridates found himself in a difficult situation and decided to ask for peace without thinking twice. He decided to negotiate peace and make peace with Sulla.

As a result, Sulla, under other circumstances, would not have made peace with Mithridates, preferring to finish him off, but his opponents in Rome increasingly took power from him, so he went to make peace with Mithridates, so that from the East he would rather go West, to Italy.

Sulla put forward the following conditions for the conclusion of peace: the return of Mithridates of all the conquests made in Asia Minor since the beginning of the war, the payment of 3 thousand (according to other sources — 2 thousand) talents of indemnity, the issuance of 80 warships.

Mithridates did not immediately agree to all the terms of peace that Sulla had announced to him, but with the threat of continuing the war.

As a result , peace was concluded in August 85 BC in the city of Dardanus on the Hellespont (the ancient name of the modern Dardanelles Strait connecting the Marmara and Aegean Seas), at a personal meeting of Sulla with Mithridates, who accepted all the Roman conditions.

The army of Fimbria at this time was stationed near Pergamum and was increasingly subject to corruption in terms of discipline. When Sulla reached it, most of the soldiers of Fimbria joined him, others fled, and Fimbria himself soon committed suicide.

After that, Sulla brought order to Asia Minor. By rewarding the remaining allies loyal to Rome (fr.Rhodes, Lycia, Magnesia, etc.), executing the supporters of Mithridates who fell into his hands and imposing a large monetary contribution of 20 thousand talents on the Roman province of Asia.

In 84 BC, Sulla and his army crossed from Asia Minor to Greece, where they spent the winter and prepared to resume the war with Gaius Marius and his supporters in Italy.

In the spring of 83 BC, Sulla sailed from Greece to Italy, where the civil war between the Marians and Sulanians soon resumed.

Thus ended the 1st Mitridatov War.

Map of the First Mithridatic War

Second Mithridatic War (83-81 BC)

Both Rome and Mithridates perceived the Dardanum peace not as a final peace, but only as a truce before the next war.

Mithridates, after the conclusion of peace, retreated to Pontus, where he fought with the Colchians and the inhabitants of the Bosporus, who fell away from him.

Sulla fought in Italy with the Marians, and his successor in the East, Lucius Licinius Murena, dreaming of glory, in 83 BC.e. under the pretext that the Pontic king was preparing for war with Cappadocia, began military operations against him. Thus began the 2nd Mitridatov War. In the first battle on the banks of the Halys, Murena was defeated. Murena retreated to Phrygia, and Mithridates to Colchis.

A series of minor battles followed. At this time, Sulla was able to defeat the Marians in Italy and became dictator. He ordered Murena to end the war in 81 BC, which he did.

Thus ended the 2nd Mitridatov War.

Third Mithridatic War (74-63 BC)

In 75 BC, King Nicomedes IV of Bithynia died, bequeathing his kingdom to Rome.

Mithridates used the death and testament of Nicomedes as a pretext for a new war and attacked Bithynia in 74 BC.

Mithridates, as at the beginning of the first War, chose the moment and situation well.

Rome at this time was at war with a former supporter of Gaius Marius, Quintus Sertorius, who had gained a foothold in Spain and was able to raise the local population to war with Rome.

Mithridates made an alliance with him, and also managed to attract pirates to this alliance.

Rome sent troops against Mithridates, led by the consuls of 74 BC, Marcus Aurelius Cotta and Lucius Licinius Lucullus, who was a friend and associate of Sulla, and already had experience in waging war with Mithridates.

Since the consuls led two armies, the first to meet the army of Mithridates (20 thousand infantry, 16 thousand cavalry and 100 chariots) was the army of the Consul Cotta, which in sea and land battles Mithridates defeated and locked up with the remnants of the army in the city of Chalcedon.

Lucullus, with his army, having learned of this, hastened to the aid of his colleague in Bithynia. When Mithridates learned of this, he marched with his army to meet Lucullus in Phrygia. There he besieged the city of Cyzicus, but failed and retreated by sea to Paria. Lucullus, meanwhile, was able to defeat Mithridates ' retreating land army in Bithynia.

Mithridates thus lost almost his entire land army, but retained his fleet.

But in 73 BC, due to a severe storm, part of his fleet was lost, and he and some of the remaining ships took refuge in Nicomedia (a city in Asia Minor, the center of the Bithynia region. Today it is located near Constantinople-Istanbul).

Here Mithridates was besieged by the consul Cotta. Mithridates was able to send his squadron to help the rebel slave Spartacus in Italy, but Lucullus, having learned about this, was able to intercept it from the island of Lemnos and destroy it.

As a result, having broken out of Nicomedia with a battle, Mithridates left by sea, but again fell into a sea storm, which finished off the remnants of his fleet. Mithridates, having lost both the fleet and the land army, arrived in Amiz, from where he asked for help from the rulers of Parthia, Armenia and the king of the Scythians.

Only Mithridates ' son-in-law, King Tigranes II of Armenia, agreed to help.

Lucullus at this time occupied all of Bithynia, from which he marched to Pontus.

Here, in the spring of 72 BC, in a series of skirmishes with Mithridates ' last land army, Lucullus was able to defeat it. Mithridates fled to his son-in-law Tigranes II in Greater Armenia, and the whole of Pontus came under the rule of Rome.

At first, Lucullus, through an embassy to Tigranes II, asked him to hand over Mithridates to Rome, but he refused, and then Lucullus began to prepare for an invasion of Greater (Great) Armenia.

In the spring of 70 BC, Lucullus invaded Greater Armenia with an army of 15,000 men, which came as a surprise to Tigranes II.

Lucullus marched on Tigranos II's new capital, Tigranocerta (present-day Silvanus, Turkey), defeating a detachment sent against him by Mitrobarzan, the general of Tigranes II.

Stele from Patikapei with a Bosporan soldier. 1st century BC

Tigranes II himself left the capital to gather troops. But in 69, near the walls of Tigranakert, a battle took place between the troops of Lucullus (10 thousand people) and

Armenian king Tigran II (up to 200 thousand people). Tigranes lost the battle and retreated to Taurus, where, together with Mithridates, he began to gather new troops there, and Lucullus entered his capital, plundering it, receiving as trophies and 8 thousand talents of gold.

Mithridates, having managed, after suffering defeats and losing the new capital, to convince Tigranes to continue the war, began to avoid open battles with the Romans by attacking their communications.

Soon, after crossing the Taurus River, Lucullus moved to the old (ancient) capital of Armenia, Artaxata (now the city of Artashat in Armenia) on the Arax River in 68 BC. e. Here he again defeated Tigranes,but could not take Artaxata.

In addition, the army of Lucullus, as well as in Rome, was growing dissatisfied with him and his actions in the course of this war.

In Rome, the opponents of Sulla came to power, who began to persuade the people to recall Lucullus, who only delayed and did not end the war, and was also a colleague of Sulla. Lucullus was also opposed by the horsemen, whose financial activities in Asia, he moderated.

In his army, the soldiers were dissatisfied with the difficulties of the campaign in the mountainous country and the strict discipline imposed by Lucullus, who himself lived almost like a king. As a result, discipline in his army was falling and the army was close to mutiny.

Under these circumstances, Lucullus was replaced as army commander in 67 BC. He was succeeded by the consul Manius Acilius Glabriona. Lucullus went back to Rome.

Mithridates decided to take advantage of the circumstances that were developing so favorably for him. He went on the offensive, retook Pontus, Cappadocia, and threatened the provinces of Asia.

Under these circumstances, the commander of the Roman forces in the East was again replaced in Rome. This time, at the beginning of 66 BC, the Roman forces in the East were led by Gnaeus Pompey the Great.

Pompey tried to settle the matter peacefully, offering Mithridates to surrender, but Mithridates refused.

Pompey then began to prepare forces to continue the war. He joined the troops of Lucullus, bringing his army to 40-50 thousand people with fresh reinforcements. and agreed with Parthia to distract Tigranes from helping Mithridates by attacking Armenia. In return, Parthia was promised to transfer a number of territories in Mesopotamia.

Mithridates gathered a new army, but was defeated by Pompey in a night battle and fled again to Armenia, but Tigranes did not accept him because he himself was forced to flee to the mountains, fleeing from the invasion of the Parthians, with whom Pompey agreed on this.

Thus, Mithridates lost his ally Armenia, and after spending the winter of 66/65 BC in Colchis, he barely moved to the Bosporan kingdom in early 65 BC, where his son Machar, who rebelled against Mithridates, ruled. Mithridates overthrew and killed Mahar.

Here he began to prepare a new army, wishing to unite against Rome the barbarian tribes of the Northern Black Sea coast and the Danube and invade Italy with them.

Along the way, he again tried to negotiate peace with Pompey, but Pompey still demanded the same thing and the negotiations led to nothing, and reached an impasse.

To implement his plan, Mithridates needed money, the barbarians must be paid, and he was able to collect only 36 thousand people and a fleet.

Mithridates used force to take money from his Bosporan subjects, which eventually led to the revolt of the major Greek cities of the Bosporan kingdom - Phanagoria (on the Taman Peninsula), Chersonesos, Feodosia and other cities.

In response, Mithridates began the executions. As a result, the rebels were led by another son of Mithridates, Pharnaces, who was supported by the army and navy, and Mithridates himself was besieged in the royal palace, in his capital Panticapaea (now the city of Kerch, Crimea, Russia).

At this time, in 65-64 BC, Pompey defeated Tigranes II and forced him to make peace with Rome, as well as subdued, though formally allied with Mithridates, the tribes of Transcaucasia and finally subordinated Pontus to the power of Rome.

In 63 BC, seeing that all was lost, Mithridates ordered his bodyguard to kill him.

Thus ended the 3rd Mitridatov War.

Antique coin of the first century BC depicting the King of Great Armenia Tigran II the Great. Private collection.

Results of wars

As a result, Mithridates died, and his state was divided into several parts, between the Roman Republic; Rome's allies and Mithridates VI's son Pharnaces II.

Pharnaces II ruled the Bosporan kingdom in 63-47 BC. e. In 47 BC, he began to fight with G. Y. Caesar, lost to Caesar and soon died. In Asia Minor, Pompey restored or re-created a number of independent principalities under the supreme authority of Rome (Cappadocia, Paphlagonia, Galatia).

Memory of Mithridates in culture

Many books and works have been written about Mithridates, ranging from antiquity to modern times. Here are some of the works about Mithridates: Sallust "Letters of Mithridates”; the tragedy" Mithridates” by Jean Rosin (1672); Mozart's opera based on the plot of the tragedy of Rosin "Mithridates, King of Pontus" (1710); the book "Purple and Poison" by A. Nemirovsky, a Soviet - Russian historian of antiquity (1973); Colin McCullough's novel " The Battle for Rome "(1991); I. Brodsky's Cappadocia (1993) and others.

Mount Mithridates in Kerch and the city of Yevpatoria, which in the late XVIII century (1784), when the Crimea was ceded to Russia and the fortress city of Kozlov was renamed Yevpatoria, in honor of Mithridates VI Yevpator.

Related topics

Roman Republic, Lucius Cornelius Sulla

Literature

Ancient authors:

1. Appian. "The Mithridatic Wars".

2. Diodorus of Sicily. "Historical Library".

3. Plutarch. Comparative and selected biographies.

4. Strabo. Geografiya [Geography], Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1964. Epitome of Pompey Trog's work "The History of Philip", Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1964.

Contemporary authors:

1. McGing B. C. The foreign policy of Mithridates VI Eupator, King of Pontos. Leiden, 1986;

2. Saprykin S. Yu The Pontic Kingdom: The State of the Greeks and Barbarians in the Black Sea region, Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1996, 348 p.

3. Saprykin S. Y. Religion and cults of Pontus of Hellenistic and Roman times. 2009. Makging B. At the Turn: History and Culture of the Pontic Kingdom // Bulletin of Ancient History. 1998. № 3;

4. Saprykin S. Yu. Women-rulers of the Pontic and Bosporan kingdom (Dynamius, Pythodoris, Antonia Typhen) / / Woman in the ancient world, Moscow, 1995.

5. Gabelko O. L. Critical notes on the chronology and dynastic history of the Pontic Kingdom // Ibid., 2005, No. 4;

6. Mithridates VI and the Pontic Kingdom / Ed. J.-M. Højte. Aarhus, 2009.

7. Pearl City Eras of the Bithynian, Pontic and Bosporan Kingdoms / / Bulletin of Ancient History. 1969, No. 3, pp. 39-69.

8. Pontic Wars. Military encyclopedia in 18 volumes. Edited by V. F. Novitsky and others, St. Petersburg, 1911-1915.

9. Saprykin S. Yu., Academician M. I. Rostovtsev on the Pontic and Bosporan kingdoms in the light of the achievements of modern antiquity // Bulletin of Ancient History. - 1995. - No. 1. - pp. 201-209.

10. Eliseev M. Mithridates against the Roman legions. This is our war!. Moscow: Eksmo Publ., 2013, 320 p. (Prehistory of Russia) 11. Molev E. A. Vlastitel Ponta [The Ruler of Pontus]. Monograph. Nizhny Novgorod: UNN Publ., 1995, 195 p. (in Russian)

12. Naumov L. Mitridatov's Wars, Moscow: Magic Lantern, 2010, 512 p. 13. Talakh V. N. Born under the sign of a comet: Mithridates Eupator Dionysus / Ed. by V. N. Talakh, S. A. Kuprienko. — 2nd, additional and revised edition. — Киев: Видавець Купрієнко С. А., 2013. — 214 с.

14. Chernyavsky S. Mithridates the Great — Moscow, 2016.