The Trophy of Trajan (Latin Tropaeum Trajani) is a monument built in 109 AD to commemorate the victory of the Roman Emperor Trajan over the Dacians in 102 AD at the Battle of Adamklisi. It was located in the Roman province of Moesia (now Adamklisi, Romania). The monument was erected on the site where the XXI Swift Legion was defeated in 92. Before its construction, there was an altar on the walls of which were written the names of 3,000 legionaries and auxiliaries who died "in the battle for the Republic."
The Trajan monument was inspired by the mausoleum of Augustus, and was dedicated to the god Mars. The monument had 54 metopes depicting the battles of the Roman legions with the enemy; most (48 out of 54) of them are now stored in a nearby museum, and another 1 metope is located in Istanbul. The monument was intended to serve as a warning to the tribes living near the newly conquered province. The original monument has not been preserved, its place is now occupied by the reconstruction of 1977, but the metopes in the museum are original.
The monument was built far from the main routes of European travelers, so it was rediscovered only in the nineteenth century.
Over the past centuries, the monument has been heavily destroyed, in particular, farmers from nearby villages used parts of the monument to build houses. At the end of the 19th century, the Bucharest archaeologist Grigori Tocilescu (1850-1909), together with two Austrian scientists, published the first work on the monument. It dealt with a number of stylistic and historical issues, such as the dating and chronological order of events related to the construction of the monument.
The monument itself has the following inscription::
NERVA[E] F(ILIUS) N[E]RVA
TRA]IANUS [AUG(USTUS) GERM(ANICUS)]
DAC]I[CU]S PONT(IFEX) MAX(IMUS)
TRIB(UNICIA) POTEST(ATE) XIII
IMP(ERATOR) VI CO(N)S(UL) V P(ater) P(atriae)
?VICTO EXERC]ITU D[ACORUM]
?---- ET SARMATA]RUM
Translation into Russian:
To Mars Ultor,
Caesar the Emperor, son of the divine Nerva,
Nerva Trajan Augustus, Germanicus,
Dhakik, the Great Pontiff,
Plebeian Tribune for the 13th time,
[proclaimed] By the Emperor [army] for the sixth time,
Consul for the fifth time, Father of the Fatherland,
Victor of the Dacian and Sarmatian armies ...