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Trajan's Column

Мосиков М.Ф., Евсеенков А.С.

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Trajan's Column-a column in the forum Traiana in Rome, created by the architect Apollodorus of Damascus in 113 AD in honor of Trajan's victories over the Dacians. The triumph of the emperor is depicted in the form of a sculptural decoration of the square depicting Dacians and war trophies, as well as in the form of reliefs of Trajan's column, telling about the conquest of Dacia.

The column is made of 20 blocks of Carrara marble, has a height of 38 m (together with the pedestal) and a diameter of 3.6 m (at the bottom). Inside, the column is hollow: it has a spiral staircase with 185 steps leading to the platform on the capitals. The monument weighs about 40 tons. A 190-meter-long ribbon with reliefs depicting episodes of the war between Rome and Dacia spirals around the column's trunk 23 times. It was originally crowned with an eagle, later with a statue of Trajan. In total, there are about 2500 human figures on the column, Trajan himself appears on it 59 times. In addition to the Victory, there are also other allegorical figures in the relief: the Danube in the image of a majestic elder, the Night-a woman with a veiled face, and others.

At the base of the column is a door leading to the hall where the golden urns with the ashes of Trajan and his wife Pompeii Plotina were placed.

The concept of "Roman capital letter" is inextricably linked with the inscription on the pedestal of the Trajan's column:

«senatvs popvlvsqve romanvs imp. caesari divi nervae f. nervae traiano avg. germ. dacico pontif. maximo trib. pot. XVII imp. VI cos VI p. p. ad declarandvm qvantae altivdinis mons et locvs tant < is oper>ibvs sit egestvs "(in early Roman writing, the letters " J "and" U "have not yet separated from" I "and"V").

"The Senate and the people of Rome [erected this column] to the Emperor Caesar Nerva Trajan Augustus, son of the divine Nerva, German, Dacian, Grand Pontiff, invested with the power of the tribune of the people for the 17th time, Emperor for the 6th time, Consul for the 6th time, Father of the Fatherland, in order to show how high the hill was dug to make room for the erection of these

1. General view of the column

The base of Trajan's Column

2. The base of Trajan's Column with captured weapons of Dacian soldiers
3. The base of Trajan's Column with captured weapons of Dacian soldiers


Trajan's Column - The First Dacian War


4. Roman fortifications on the Danube, several watchtowers, piles of wood and haystacks
5a. The Roman army prepares to cross the Danube, building several boats. In the image on the left, you can see several guard posts manned by auxiliaries, with several signal torches sticking out of the balustrades; on the right, the Auxiliaries ' fort
5b. The Roman army prepares to cross the Danube, building several boats. In the image on the left, you can see several guard posts manned by auxiliaries, with several signal torches sticking out of the balustrades; on the right, the Auxiliaries ' fort
6. Boats on the Danube, loaded with supplies for the Roman armies, for the first campaign of 101, To the right of the image we see the god of the Danube River. In the background are the legion fortresses of Viminacium or Singidunum
7. The Roman army crosses the Danube on two pontoon bridges, in the direction of the city of Tapa. The bas-relief features two columns marching from Viminacium and Singidunum. The legionnaires are dressed in lorica segmentata, at the head of the columns are two legates, as well as vexilarii, signiferi and aquiliferi
8. In the Roman army that crossed the river, we see horsemen who are considered Equites Singulares (mounted bodyguards of the emperor), as well as Praetorians with spears. At the head of the marching column is Emperor Trajan, who is represented here for the first time
9. Emperor Trajan sits in the curule chair, surrounded by two officers (possibly Lucius Licinius Sura) and lictors in the first military council after crossing the Danube. Then a few equits and bills of exchange move to the nearest military camp
10. Inside the praetorium of the Roman camp, the emperor with a patera offers a sacrifice on the altar, surrounded by priests. Outside the walls, the Tubuceni and Corniceni are accompanied by a procession with sacrificial animals for the rite of "chandeliers" - the purification of the camp and the army. On the right, we see the Emperor observing an auspicious omen. The character with the club falls to the ground from the mule. According to another interpretation, this is a failed deserter in his intention to kill Trajan
11. From the rostrum, Trajan, accompanied by two senior officers (including Lucius Licinius Sura), speaks to the legionnaires and auxiliaries in the subarmalis with the Clypeus and signiferi at the forefront. On the right, numerous legionnaires begin to build fortifications and field depots to supply troops in Dacia
12. Soldiers work on the construction of fortifications and a bridge. Trajan, accompanied by two satellites, checks the state of work
13. While some soldiers watch the camp, others collect water near the bridge, others cut down trees in the forest to build a new road. From the top of the hill, Trajan points out the direction in which the legionaries are building a road leading deeper into the kingdom of Decebela
14. Trajan, accompanied by several auxiliaries, closely monitors the progress of the work. Part of the legionnaires build a wooden palisade, inside which you can see sheaves of straw and hay to supply the cavalry. On the right, the Emperor appears for the second time, moving to interrogate a Dacian prisoner


15. Scouts (explorators) bring a captured duck to the Emperor for questioning. Once again, Trajan checks the condition of the works from the top of the fortified camp, where the legionaries are building another bridge over the river, while other legionaries with baskets intend to dig a ditch
16. In the background, the camp, in the foreground - auxiliary cavalry, ready to cross the bridge for the first clash with the troops of the Dacians
17. The Roman legions move in the direction of the enemy, led by Aquilifer and signiferomi. Ahead, the legionnaires cut down trees in the forest to build a road for the Roman army
18. The Roman legions advance. Trajan stands at the walls of the camp, where the severed heads of Dacians are brought. Meanwhile, a group of equites jumps forward and enters the battle. Perhaps this is the Battle of Tapa
19. The scene of the Battle of Tapa continues. Auxiliaries, armed with a baton and without a shirt, attacks the Dacians. At his feet are only the fallen Dacians, the remaining ones defending themselves from the Roman attack. Another Roman auxiliary struggles, holding the severed head of a Dacian in his teeth by the hair. At the top stands the figure of the Thunderer Jupiter, who strikes the Dacians. On the right, you can see Dacian banners in the form of a dragon, as well as Decebalus in the forest
20. The emperor holds a spear pointing down, which means "taking possession of territories". Then two Roman soldiers set fire to a Dacian village, and its inhabitants flee. Above is the city, which has stakes with skulls on its walls, probably Roman soldiers from Domitian's previous Dacian campaign. The legionnaire at the top stripped naked and raised his shield and his equipment over his head as he crossed the river to avoid getting his gear wet
21. Trajan addresses the legionaries and auxiliaries from the dais and holds a spear in his hands. On the right are several Dacian ambassadors, three of them on horseback. On the right is a Roman fortification guarded by two sentries. Again Trajan receives the Dacian embassy in front of the Roman camp
22. Roman cavalry sets fire to an enemy village, and auxiliaries kill fleeing Dacian villagers. Then women with children are deported from the occupied territories. Trajan shows a noble woman with a child in her arms to the boat. There's a cave down there with dead animals. Winter 101/102
23. This scene shows the attack of the Dacians and their allies the Roxolani in the winter of 101/102 on Roman fortifications in the province of Lower Moesia. Dacian horsemen cross the Danube. In the upper right corner, a group of Roxolan cataphract horsemen gallops towards the Roman fortress of Huesca (Oescus) on the Danube
24. The Roman army was besieged by Dacian troops under Decibalus in a fortress on the Moesian Limes (perhaps Huesca or Ratiaria?). The fortress is defended by auxiliaries. This may mean that the entire section of the Danube Limes was besieged by the Dacian army. A large pine tree on the right indicates a clear separation between the current and next scene. This means simultaneous actions in two different and distant places
25. Here the Moesian fleet (Classis Moesica) loads supplies and arms itself to help the besieged troops of the neighboring Roman province of Lower Moesia. In the background, the city with an amphitheater, located on the banks of the Danube and which can be identified with the "headquarters" of Trajan in Veminia. In front of the city is a river port with two boats loading supplies. On the right, Trajan watches the landing of the Signifer troops. Then there are the triumphal arches , one of which has a quadriga
26. Two other cargo ships carry horses and provisions. Next to them are two liburnas. Lower Liburna is the flagship of the fleet, with the Emperor on board. Under Trajan's supervision, troops land in Lower Moesia in front of a Roman fortress


27. Roman troops move to the place of fighting, along the Moesian Limes. Trajan rides on horseback, leading the auxiliaries through the forest (they belong to the allied Germanic population). In front of them are two explorators (scouts) who have noticed the enemy army
28. Roman auxiliary cavalry detachments encounter the cataphracts of the Roxolani, causing them to suffer losses. The clash could have occurred in the vicinity of the future city of Nicopolis-on-Istra, later founded by Trajan in honor of the victory. The scene shows Sarmatian (Roxolani) horsemen fleeing, one of whom lies dead on the ground, another is wounded and about to fall to the ground from his horse, and finally a third who turns around and shoots arrows at the advancing Roman horsemen.
29. A night battle follows. This can be understood from the image of Nikta, who covers her head. The German allies, half-naked and armed with clubs, together with auxiliaries attack the Dacian army. To the right, equites surround the enemy. High up on the hill, you can see Dacian carts carrying loot captured during the invasion of Lower Moesia. Below, a wounded duck tries to pull an arrow out of his chest
30. The emperor is high on the podium inside the castrum under construction, receives three surrendering Dacian leaders. On the lower left, a line of old men, women, and children bent to the ground in surrender. To the right of the emperor, legionnaires march towards the enemy; Auxiliaries bind captured Dacians, and to the right, army medics take care of a wounded legionnaire.
31. On the left, a medic bandages the auxiliary's leg. Behind them march the legionaries, preceded by Vexilarius, Signiferi, and Corniceni. In the center is Trajan, followed by one of his legates, Lucius Licinius Sura, who is looking at the captive Dacus. Above, two carts drawn by a pair of mules carry ballistae. On the right, Dacians fight legionnaires and Auxiliaries
32. Legionnaires and auxiliaries surrounded the Dacians from all sides. In the center is the flight of the defeated Dacians. On the right are the dead and wounded Ducklings. Three equites chasing Dacian warriors running into the forest. There are no dead Romans in any of the scenes
33. Trajan addresses the assembled troops. Next to him are two senior officers (on the right - Lucius Licinius Sura). On the left were the Equites; below, the auxiliaries and their barbarian allies; on the right, the legionaries, Praetorians, and Signiferi. On the right is a Roman camp, inside which there are captured Dacians
34. Trajan, sitting on a chair surrounded by three legates, distributes awards to the auxiliaries. One of the auxiliaries thanks the Emperor by kissing his hand. At the bottom left, two auxiliaries embrace and kiss, while others raise their hands to the emperor in greeting. In the scene to the right and below the tower, women can be seen torturing three naked captured Dacians with torches. Campaign 102 years old
35. On the left, Trayana boards a warship. Legionnaires load bales onto a cargo ship that has two Roman signifiers at the stern. Once again, a new military campaign (in the spring of 102) opens with a parade of troops on a pontoon bridge. The column is commanded by a legate with pro-praetorian powers, followed by several Signiferi, Aquilifer, and Ovanifer. The Danube crossing took place between Huesca and Nova Scotia
36. The Roman army advances: in the lower part of the equita; then over the wall - the legionaries; behind the fence-the wagons. Round tower on the right. On the right, Emperor Trajan, accompanied by two legates, meets the Roman army at Castrum, which is climbing a hill along a road reinforced with a wooden parapet
37. Trajan, followed by a reinforcement of legionnaires with two signiferi and a vexillarius, who meet legionnaires who also have signiferi and an aquiliferi
38. Two Dacian envoys meet the emperor. Below, two legionnaires carrying earth in baskets, above other soldiers, cut down trees. In the center, Trajan, with his head covered, performs a sacrifice with the Signifera in front of the altar. Below is a picture of a procession with a bull, ram and pig. At the head of the procession are several Tubucenes


39. Trajan delivers a speech to the assembled troops. Behind them are the legates, next to them the vexilarius, signiferi, legionnaires, and auxiliaries. On the right, the legionnaires move up the mountain, cutting through the forest in their path to ensure that the Roman army moves deeper into the forests of Dacia
40. While some legionnaires cut down trees, others rake up the earth and move it, building a road along which the troops pass. In the background is a fortified camp. In the foreground are two duck heads on spikes. There are two equits on the right. At the top, an auxiliary sets fire to a wooden Dacian fort. It should be noted that helmets are hanging on standing scooters
41. Trajan riding on a wooden bridge, accompanied by several mounted bodyguards (Equites singulares). Above is the Dacian fortress, on the top of Mount Orestiye. At the bottom left, three auxiliaries are looking at the emperor. From the top of the mountains, a group of Dacians, one of them holding a draco banner, helplessly watches the Roman advance on Sarmizegetusa Regia. Lower right two auxiliaries set fire to Dacian fortifications
42. The legionnaires are busy building the new camp of Ulpius Trajan Sarmisegetus. In the center of the stage, Trajan, accompanied by four legates, receives the Dacian ambassador's embassy. Dak throws the shield at the emperor's feet and kneels. This episode is narrated by Cassius Dion Kokkean. He adds that after the meeting, Licinius Sura was sent along with the Praetorian prefect, Tiberius Claudius Livianus, to discuss the terms of a possible peace treaty. Behind the noble Dacus are a legate, several Cornicines, several signiferi, an aquilifer, and a few legionnaires
43. On the left, carts with barrels are pulled by pairs of oxen and mules under the escort of legionaries heading to the Roman camp. The outer walls are guarded by legionnaires. There is a large tent in the center. Above are three circular Dacian buildings in the forest that are being stormed by legionnaires ' detachments. There are several auxiliaries in the lower right corner
44. Top left are two more buildings located among the mountains and forests of Dacia, besieged by Roman legionaries. Meanwhile, auxiliaries continue to move lower. In the center, Trajan is on a hill talking to two legates. In front of the emperor, seven Moorish auxiliary horsemen gallop without saddles or bridles
45. The attack of Moorish cavalry overturns the Dacian army, which retreats into the forest. Some soldiers fall and are trampled by Moorish cavalry under the command of the Moorish Lucius Quietus
46. Legionnaires build a new fortified camp in the mountains of Transylvania, in the heart of the kingdom of Decebala. On the left, they are protected by auxiliaries. Upstairs, Emperor Trajan receives two Dacian ambassadors (one in the next scene), the first of whom kisses Trajan's hands. At the bottom, a legionnaire helps transport a heiroballista lying on a cart
47. Several ballistae are installed on the walls of the Roman camp. In front of the legionnaires are stacks of logs. Below, two ballistariums are firing. The next scene shows auxiliaries, including funditors (slingers) and Eastern archers, who begin a new battle with Dacian troops
48. The battle rages on. High up on the wooden ramparts, a pair of Dacians fire a ballista, apparently stolen from the Romans in the previous battle. Below, Dacian troops are advancing through the forest. Some Dacians cut down trees to build fortifications. Above is a large brick building that identifies with the Dacian capital Sarmizegetusa Regia, which stood in the Transylvanian Mountains
49. Legionnaires build a new fortified camp. A noble Dacian is brought to Trajan with his hands tied, accompanied by two auxiliaries. Below the emperor are auxiliaries protecting him. On the right, legionnaires are chopping down trees to create a new road. Above, Roman auxiliaries advance
50. Scene of a battle between Roman auxiliaries and Dacian troops. Among the auxiliaries, we can recognize detachments of Palmyra archers and German infantry. The Dacians try to resist the Roman onslaught, but some retreat to the fortifications, others lie prostrate
51. Legionnaires attack the Dacian fortress built for defense, the capital of Sarmizegetusa Regia in the "turtle" formation. Trajan watches the battle. Two auxiliaries appear before the emperor with the severed heads of Dacian leaders. On the right, a group of legionnaires ready to join the next battle
52. The battle continues. Dacian troops watch it from their fortresses located in the Transylvanian Mountains. On the right are legionnaires and auxiliaries and German troops. Many Dacian warriors, slain by the advancing Romans, lie on the ground. Others try to resist. Trajan again on the right, inside the camp addressing the troops
53. Legionnaires listen to the emperor while other legionnaires work building a camp and cutting down trees. Some warriors draw water from the river to drink, others carry sacks on their backs. Roman troops carry loot taken from the Dacians
54. The legions are drawn up in full force around Trajan, who is seated on his curule chair, and who, from a stone rostrum, greets the Dacian ambassadors who ask for peace and kneel at his feet. Behind the Emperor are signiferi and legates. On the right are captured Dacians with their hands tied behind their backs. Behind them, the Dacian nobility kneels, hands outstretched, begging for mercy. Near the walls of Sarmizegetusa Rhegium is the Roman siege works
55. Dacian warriors and nobles lay down their weapons and kneel in submission. Behind them are numerous military banners and insignia, including two dragons. On the right is Decebalus, who holds out his hands in surrender, and behind him are Dacian soldiers who intend to demolish the walls, fulfilling the conditions of the Romans
56. In the background Sarmizegetusa Regia. On one side, two Dacians tear down walls, and on the right, numerous women, children, men, and children migrate to new lands. The Roman occupation of Dacia begins. Trajan from the rostrum, addresses the troops for the last time, who proclaim him emperor upon receiving the title of Conqueror of Dacia (Dacicus)
57. The end of the First Dacian War is represented by two war trophies. The winged Nike writes on the shield, and represents the end of the first military campaign. This image was also featured on coins of the time. The next episode continues the story from the beginning of the Second Dacian War

Trajan's Column - Second Dacian War

The beginning of the Second Dacian War. In the bas-relief that opens the Second Dacian War on Trajan's Column, the Roman fleet must sail to the scene of the fighting (105 AD) and therefore leave the port on the Adriatic, which is sometimes identified with Brindisi. This is the most correct hypothesis from the point of view of logistics, since the Appian Road leads to this port. Others believe that this is Ancona, which is the most correct hypothesis from an iconographic point of view, since the hill and buildings depicted on the column are present only in this city. There is also a third point of view - what is meant by the port of Ravenna-the parking place of the classis praetoria Ravennatis (Ravenna Fleet). This is the most rational hypothesis from a strategic point of view.

The warships present with their sails lowered are triremes and biremes. On their stern you can see the cabins of the captain and helmsmen (the rudder on Roman ships was wider than usual), and on the bow you can see rams and ornaments (apotropic eyes, newts and hippocampus). Two citizens with torches look out from the acropolis towards the port. This is both suggestive of the night and the anxiety felt in the city due to the presence of an army ready to fight a hard war. Swaying waves inside the harbor indicate the presence of strong winds.

On the ships, the oarsmen, ready to set sail, listen to the words of the emperor, who encourages his men to go out to sea, despite the strong wind and night. On the ship, Roman signums and bills of exchange are clearly visible on the stern. On the left side of the image, you can see buildings that can be used to determine the port of departure of the Roman fleet to Dacia. Visible Church, located on top of the hill; before him is a statue of the deity placed outside, which can be identified with Venus; the winding road connecting the temple with the port at the bottom; another temple, located on the seafront at the foot of the hill; the pier, the end of which stands the triumphal arch; the top of the arch are three statues of the gods, mercury, Neptune and Portuna (God of ports and harbors); colonnade in the middle of the hillside; arch building.

According to the researchers, all these structures point to the city of Ancona, which Trajan developed precisely in order to facilitate contacts between Italy and the East. In this case, it was possible to identify all elements present: the temple of Venus, located on top of a hill, known by Catullus and Juvenal, whose remains are visible under the current Cathedral; the Temple is affected by waves, is the temple of Diomede, known for Skylake Koriand; was discovered in the part of the colonnade, which was interpreted as the fence urban forum, exit to the sea from the terrace; a pier and arch of Trajan's still perfectly preserved in the port of Ancona; discovered the remains of an arched building, interpreted as part of the shipyards of the age of Trajan.


58. The first scene of the Second Dacian War, described in detail above. The Roman fleet has to go to the place of fighting (105 AD) and therefore departs from a port on the Adriatic
59. This scene is a graphic continuation of the previous one. On the embankment we see a bull prepared for sacrifice. The crowd cheers the arrival of the Roman fleet.
60. Here you can see a large forum with a temple in the center. Trajan meanwhile collects taxes from the public
61. The fleet arrives at the next port. The entire population, including women and children, parades under the arch. to see the Emperor preparing to make a sacrifice, due to the imminent new military campaign
62. The emperor approaches the place of sacrifice to which four bulls have been brought. On the right, a group of people greet Trajan. Two legionnaires in the background look down from the walls of the camp
63. Again, the pier of the port city is depicted, through which Trajan continues his campaign. Trajan prepares to make a new sacrifice. In the background, in addition to the walls, there is a theater, a temple and a portico. This may be the port of Aquileia, where the via Gemina began, which led Trajan along the Sava to the Danube, near the legionary fortresses Singidunum and Viminacium
64. At the top left, sailing ships arrived at the port. An army in marching clothes follows Trajan away from the Adriatic coast. You can see the border fortress behind you
65. Trajan now sets out on horseback, with a group of eight horsemen (comites Augusti or equites singulares) following him. Roman fortifications are visible in the background. On the right, a group of Dacian barbarians (six adults and three children) greet the Princeps with outstretched hands in greeting and submission
66. Trajan offers a sacrifice on the altar (lustratio) before a crowd of Romans and Dacians. Next to the emperor is a flutist (tibisen), a girl and a boy (prekon). In the background, four bulls are led to the altar for sacrifice. Perhaps this is happening not far from the place where the fortress of Ulpius Trajan Sarmizegetusa stood. The mixed population indicates that these may be areas known as the Banat
67. Legionnaires cut down trees, dig and move earth, build roads, bridges and fortifications to advance into enemy territory
68. Daci goes to the fortified city (Sarmizegetusa Regia), located in the middle of the mountains and a number of other Dacian fortifications, where a military council is held under the chairmanship of Decebalus. Armed Dacians converge on all sides
69. Auxiliaries from the top of the fortress defend themselves from the attack of Dacian troops. Some of the Dacians are lying dead on the ground, others are covered with shields


70. The Dacian army attacks a triple line of Roman fortifications, which may be the Limes Dobruja, built by Domitian during his first campaign against the Dacians (between 85 and 89), and fortified by Trajan, between 103 and 104 . The Legate-Propraetor of Lower Moesia gives the order to defend the walls
71. Trajan, at the head of the Roman cavalry, rushes to the aid of the legate-propraetor of Lower Moesia, Lucius Fabius Justus. This is the final scene of the ' 105 campaign. Meanwhile, the legionaries continue to cut down trees to ensure that the Roman army can advance into enemy territory.
72. The Roman armies assemble at the great bridge over the Danube, which Apollodorus built during the Treaty of Drobetum. Trajan, holding a patera in his hand, makes a sacrifice before starting his last Dacian campaign
73. Trajan on the right, surrounded by auxiliaries and legates, receives ambassadors from different tribes. Among them, we note the knots of Germanic hair (possibly Quads and/or Marcomanni). There are also barbarians with Oriental headdresses (for example, Bastarnae and / or Sarmatians and Yazigs). In the background you can see the fortress and the theater
74. Legionnaires, having crossed the bridge, move to the territory of the Dacians. On the right are two Roman horsemen (equites singulares)
75. Trajan on horseback at the head of the column reaches the Roman fort Drobeta. Before the walls, he is met by a boy with an offering, a priest with a bull, legionaries, Vexilarius, Corniceni, signiferi, and a legate
76. Trajan stands in the vestments of the Great Pontiff. His right hand holds a patera for pouring wine on the altar during the sacrifice before a new military campaign. On the left are three sacrificial animals: a pig (sus), a ram (ovis) and a bull (taurus). They are preceded by bucinator, cornicene, and tubucene. This is the scene of the beginning of the last military campaign of 106
77. Trajan stands on the podium with several companions (including Lucius Licinius Sura on the right) and delivers a speech to the army with Aquilifer and signifera in lion skins. Also standing next to Trajan is the lictor
78. Inside the fortified camp, Trajan argues with Licinius Sura (to the emperor's right). The Emperor's guards are assigned to auxiliaries, one of whom holds a bill of exchange. Meanwhile, the Roman army begins its march: at the top there are several carts with weapons (shields and helmets), below are two rows of legionaries in lorica segmentata, helmets with shields and gladiuses
79. The Roman offensive takes place in two parallel columns separated by a mountain range. Legionnaires are preceded by Vexilarius, Signifer, Cornicen, and legatus. Higher up are the helmeted legionnaires with bucinator, an unidentified standard bearer, legate, and Trajan. Inside the camp, legionaries unload wagons while an auxiliary guards the gate, while another leans down to draw water from the river
80. At the bottom of the Roman fort, surrounded by walls. The Roman army is advancing in two columns into enemy territory. In addition to the legionnaires, who are preceded by Roman officers, there are auxiliaries, including slingers, Germanic warriors and Eastern archers
81. Two "columns" reach the new camp under construction, at the gate of which we see the sentry auxilarius. Some of the legionnaires collect wheat, which is then loaded onto mules to supply the Roman army


82. Auxiliaries sent on the offensive watch the Dacian fortress, Sarmizegetusa Regia, hidden in the forest. On the walls of the Dacian fortress, the Dacians are worried about the advancing Romans. In the lower right part, the first battle between the Roman auxiliaries and the Dacian vanguard takes place
83. Auxiliaries fight Dacian vanguards. Two signifera are located in the center of the Roman camp, one of which is armed with a garlanded parma. On the right, a group of Roman soldiers attacks the Dacian fortress, located near the capital of Sarmizegetusa, Regia
84. Dacians defend themselves on the walls by throwing stones at besieging legionnaires and auxiliaries, who carry siege ladders and throw javelins and stones. The auxiliary on the wall holds a duck's head
85. Trajan, with two legates, stands at the foot of the Dacian fortress, watching the siege, accompanied by detachments of auxiliaries and legionaries. The Princeps ponders what tactics to use to take the enemy's walls and towers. Outside the walls, a set of unidentified Roman siege weapons
86. The Romans advance: Legionaries, auxiliaries, Eastern archers and Germans face the Dacian army that is emerging from the city walls. In the center, several dead Dacian warriors lie on the ground, with the Dacian falx lying next to them. At the head of the Dacians is a warrior ready to throw a large boulder at the Romans
87. The Roman attack on the walls continues after winning a field battle. And while the Dacians are trying to defend the city, Roman legionaries armed with dolabras are trying to tear down the walls below. Auxiliaries attack the walls from the other side, while stones are thrown at them from the walls
88. Legionnaires cut down trees to build siege weapons, to storm the city of Dacians
89. Trajan receives a noble Dacian surrounded by comites militares. Dak, on his knees, holds out his hands to the Roman emperor as a sign of surrender
90. The Dacians set fire to the city to prevent the Romans from seizing their property and providing the army with food
91. In the city, the Dacians prefer to commit suicide by taking poison, so as not to fall into the hands of the Romans. On the right, Duckies distribute poison from a large container placed on the ground. And the numerous men in line are holding out their hands, ready to receive them. On the right, one duck supports the other while the other dies of poison
92. Dacians flee from the Romans from the besieged city, in the direction of the forest
93. The legionnaires are drawn up in three rows, preceded by signifer, vexilarius, and bucinator. Trajan welcomes the surrender of the Dacians, who hold out their hands and kneel to beg for mercy.


94. The Romans have entered the city and are filling and carrying away the numerous sacks of property left by the Dacians. Inside the city, we notice a cross wall that could represent a Roman camp. Once again, Trajan, standing on high ground, delivers a speech to the troops. There are legionnaires, auxiliaries, and signifiers all around. Roman soldiers greet the Emperor by extending their hands towards the princeps (salutatio imperatoria)
95. The Roman army comes out of the camp. Legionnaires build a new fort: some dig a moat, others carry stone blocks to build new walls
96. This scene shows a Roman camp. Several auxiliaries guard the gate. Next to the tents are a couple of Roman signums. Legionnaires build a fort. Trajan, flanked by three comites militares, receives a delegation of Dacians, who prostrate themselves at his feet in surrender
97. Auxiliaries cross the river on a bridge. The Roman offensive continues deep into Dacia
98. The fortress is abandoned by Dacian troops who are fleeing from the Roman vanguard. The Dacian troops continue their march and pass near the fortified Roman fortress, inside which two legionaries are building boats on the Marisus River (now Mures, a tributary of the Tisza)
99. The Dacians storm the Roman fortress. Roman troops respond by throwing bricks. There are many dead Dacian warriors on the ground. On the right - Dacians falling from the Roman walls. Above the stone wall, you can see Dacian warriors defending Decebalus, who is watching the attack of his warriors
100. The escape of the Dacians continues. Above is an abandoned fortress in the Carpathian Mountains. Auxiliaries watch their emperor Trajan, who from the rostrum, accompanied by two legates, delivers a speech to the troops (vexilarius and legionaries)
101. Auxiliaries listen to the speech of Emperor Trajan. In the forest, legionnaires carry valuables on mules that might once have belonged to Decebalus
102. Decebalus, together with his loyal subjects, considers what to do. Some kill themselves with daggers, others prefer to have their comrades help them kill themselves, and others are still trying to escape
103. Duck at the bottom left belongs to the previous scene: he bent down, waiting for his companion to impale him. Trajan (this is the last time the Roman emperor appears on a column), accompanied by legates and praetorians in the camp in front of the praetorium, receives another enemy delegation. Among the Dacians, the first kneels, the second holds a gift in his hand and raises his hand to the emperor in a sign of supplication
104. The Roman cavalry pursues Decibalus. The action takes place in the forest. In the background are the mountains of the Carpathian mountain range
105. A group of Dacian horsemen cover the flight of Decebalus, but they are overtaken by the pursuing Roman cavalry. One duck fell to the ground dying, the other falls from a galloping horse


106. Decebalus commits suicide with the help of falx. The Dacian leader, in order not to be captured by the Roman cavalrymen, chose to kill himself. The same scene was similarly depicted on the tomb of the horseman Tiberius Claudius Maximus, the one who cut off and brought the head of the defeated leader, Trajan. The Equites failed to prevent the king's suicide
107. Roman horsemen capture a kneeling man, woman, and boy, possibly the wife and son of Decebalus
108. You can see the Roman camp, a couple of sentry legionnaires outside and a lot of Roman soldiers inside, who witness the delivery of the head of Decebalus on a tray
109. Roman soldiers scour the most inaccessible areas of Dacia (represented by forests and wild animals such as wild boars) and capture the defeated leaders
110. At the bottom left is a wooden building with several Dacians inside, where they were placed by the Romans who captured them. bust of a female deity wrapped in a cloak: possibly an image of" captured " Dacia. In the city above, a group of auxiliaries battle the last of the resisting Dacians and their Yazig allies (identified by their conical caps).
111. Another scene of the capture of a Dacian leader by Roman allies. Top right auxiliaries with torches in their hands set fire to a Dacian village
112. Roman troops on a campaign. In the background, in the mountains, you can see the heads of dacians. On the right is a scene of mass deportation of Dacian population (men, women and children)
113. The previous deportation scene continues in the last element of the column, where the animals inhabiting Dacia (oxen, sheep and goats)are also present

Related topics

Marcus Ulpius Nerva Trajan, The Trophy of Trajan, The Roman Empire