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Military Campaigns of Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great is one of the most charismatic and renowned figures of the Ancient world. He came to power at the young age of 20. As a result of Alexander the Great's campaign to the East, a new powerful state emerged, stretching from the Aegean Sea to the Indus River basin and from the Libyan desert to the Caspian Sea.


By the turn of the 5th and 4th centuries BCE, it became evident that the main enemy of the Greek city-states, the Persian Empire, had significantly weakened, creating favorable conditions for conquests:

Before embarking on the campaign, Alexander the Great had only 28,000 infantry and 4,700 cavalry. He was essentially taking a gamble, as his army had provisions for only a month.

Objectives of the campaign:

Alexander the Great, depicted in a Roman fresco in Pompeii, 1st century AD.

Alexander the Macedonian's Military Campaign in the East

Alexander the Great faced Persian King Darius III, a timid and indecisive ruler who made a series of strategic mistakes that ultimately led to his downfall. The Persian army consisted mainly of cavalry, and Darius' attempts to create a regular infantry force were unsuccessful. The infantry consisted of mercenaries and could not offer significant resistance to the Macedonians.

Chronology of events:

Alexander the Great's Military Campaign

After Alexander the Great's eastern campaign concluded, rebellions erupted on the borders of the empire. Following Alexander's sudden demise, the vast empire he had created rapidly crumbled. He had not left behind a designated heir, and a struggle for power ensued among his former comrades.

Related topics

Alexander the Great, Ancient Greece, Macedonia, Macedonian Wars