Roman Legion - Legio XVIII
Legio XVIII (Eighteenth Legion) - a Roman legion formed by Caesar's successor, By Octavian Augustus in 41 or 40 BC.E. to fight the son of Pompey the Great, Sextus Pompey, who seized the island of Sicily and from there threatened the communications for the supply of grain to Rome, and therefore the power of Octavian. In 41 BC, the armies of both Caesar and Pompey the Great had legions with this number. Most likely, Caesar's 18th Legion perished along with other legions under Gaius Scribonius Curio in Africa, and Pompey's 18th Legion was disbanded after his defeat. There is a version that the 18th Legion of Octavian was created from the legion of Octavian himself and the legion with the same number that fought on the side of Mark Antony.
Date of existence: presumably 41/40 BC - 9 AD.
Legion Symbol: unknown.
Legion of Honor nicknames: is unknown.
- Most scientists agree that Legio XVIII created Octavian Augustus in 41 or 40 BC to fight Sextus Pompey.
- Between 30 and 14 BC, Legio XVIII veterans were settled in the newly established colony of Ateste (present-day Est, in northern Italy). Most likely, the legion was later located in Aquitaine. It was later transferred in 15 BC to the Rhine. Here, the winter base of Legio XVIII was the city of Wetera (now the city of Xanten, Germany), as well as the city of Oberaden or Haltern (now the city of Haltern am See, Germany). Aquitaine was a Roman province from 22 BC to the beginning of the 5th century AD. The name comes from the Aquitaine tribe — one of the ancestors of the modern Basques.
- Legio XVIII also took part in the Germanic companies of Drusus (13-9 BC) and Tiberius (8-5 BC).
- In 6 AD, Legio XVIII, as part of a large army of 13 legions, took part in the military campaign of Tiberius against the Marcomanni king Marobod, but the company was prevented by the great Illyrian uprising.
- In 9 AD, Legio XVIII, along with Legio XVII and Legio XIX , took part in the unsuccessful military campaign of the German governor Publius Quintilius Varus, which ended with the death of all three legions and the governor in the Battle of Teutoburg. In memory of the legions ' fate, their numbers were no longer assigned to other legions of the Roman Empire. Lost in the Battle of Teutoburg, the Legio XVIII eagle was recovered by the Romans either during the reign of Emperor Tiberius (reigned 14-37) or during the reign of Emperor Caligula (reigned 37-41). Three men who served in the Legio XVIII are known to history:
1. Military Tribune Gaius Pompeius Proculus of Rome
2. Centurion Marcus Cellius, who died in the Battle of Teutoburg, but a monument from his grave is kept in a museum in Xanthe, Germany.
3. Legionnaire Titus Atidius Porcion of Ateste
Tombstone stele of Marcus Caelius, centurion of the XVIII Legion, found in the vicinity of Vetera. The stele is one of the most famous symbols of the Roman defeat in the Teutoburg Forest. Archaeological Museum, Bonn. First half of the 1st century AD
Tombstone of the military tribune Gaius Pompeius Proculus, third son of Gaius, Tribunus Militum of the 18th Legion, Prefect of Fabrum and Severus of the Cavalry. Augustinian, Epigraphic Museum, Diocletian's Baths, Rome. First half of the 1st century AD
List of Roman Legions, Octavian Augustus, Legion, Legionnaire, Octavian Augustus, Legio XVII, Legio XIX
1. Emil Ritterling. Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft. Legio (XVII, XVIII, XIX). Band XII,2. — Stuttgart, 1925. — 1767 p.
2. Matthew Bunson. Encyclopedia of the Roman empire. — Sonlight Christian, 2002.
3. Nico Roymans. From the Sword to the Plough. Three Studies on the Earliest Romanisation of Northern Gaul. — Amsterdam University Press, 1996.
4. Gaius Velleius Paterculus. Roman History // Small Roman Historians, Moscow: Ladomir, 1996, pp. 11-98.
5. Kanya River. A brief history of the various legions. Legio. 2001.
6. Jona Lendering. Legio XVIII (English). Livius.org. 2002.