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Penula

Евсеенков А.С.

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Paenula (Latin: paenula) — an ancient Roman wide cloak without sleeves, which was fastened in front and protected from the cold and precipitation.

One of the most ancient images of penula is a bas-relief with a shepherd in Lucera, which dates back to the 4th-2nd century BC. There are also written references: for example, Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus mentions speakers "squeezed and as if locked in penula". This description confirms that the penula covered and covered the person almost completely. The raincoat could be fastened in front with a fibula or button. A distinctive part of the penula is the hood, which apparently could cover the head even with a helmet. The main material for sewing penula was coarse wool and cloth, in rare cases, raincoats could be sewn from leather. The color scheme was usually non-marking dark shades. The penula was usually quite long and fell below the knees, sometimes almost reaching the beginning of the foot.

The penula was worn by both the military, mainly legionnaires and auxiliaries, and ordinary citizens, including women. Similar items of clothing existed among other peoples, for example, the Celts.

Bas-relief of a shepherd in Lucera, 4th-2nd century BC
Fragment of a tombstone with a penula and buttons. Find from Camomile Street, near the remains of the Roman Wall near London. 1-2 century AD
Bas-relief with a Praetorian guard from Pozzuoli, 2nd century AD.

Reconstruction

Penula can be present in the wardrobe of any reenactor of antiquity, both military and civilian. However, it should be borne in mind that representatives of different social groups wore penuls differently.

To create such a raincoat, you will need at least 3 meters of dense fabric - wool or cloth of a dark shade. Penul patterns differ in the shape of the hood.

Legionnaire in Penul, reconstruction
Restored penula patterns. Upper-cloak from Lahum, Egypt, 1.98*3 m. The bottom is a raincoat from Ballana, Egypt. 1.66*2.83 m. 1-3 century AD
Penula pattern recovered from finds in Augst, 1st-3rd century AD.

Related topics

Sagum, Legionnaire, Auxiliaries, The Celts

Literature

Giro P. Private and public life of the Romans

See Bartholinus "Commentarius de paenula", in Grevius ' Thesaurus (vol.VI); Marquardt, "Privatleben der Römer" (1886, p. 564).

Sumner G. Roman Military Dress 2009

Gallery

Bas-relief of legionaries in Penulae, found in a settlement near Hadrian's Wall, 2nd AD.
Penula from Egypt. 1-3 century AD
Bronze statue of Priapus, consisting of two parts. Found in Rivery. Picardy Museum in Amiens. 2nd half of the 1st century AD
Small bronze statue of a farmer (plowman) in Penul from the Trier region, 3rd century AD.
Telesfor. Bronze statuette. Florence, National Archaeological Museum. Inv. no. 2321. 1-2 century AD