Sagum (Latin sagum) — a woolen cloak of Roman soldiers and officers. It was usually fixed on one shoulder with a fibula. Unlike the penula, it had a simpler pattern: the sagum was a rectangle, not a semicircle, and did not have a hood. The cloak could be decorated with embroidery around the perimeter or at the corners, and sometimes the fabric was loosened into a small fringe at the bottom.
Sagum was not very popular with legionnaires and auxiliaries, but they used penula more often, as it is more practical. Sagum was more typical of officers, most often it depicted centurions. Traditionally, the cloak was fastened with a fibula under the neck or at the shoulder, it could also be attached to faleras or worn over the arm.
Sagum-like cloaks were also found among other peoples of the ancient era, in particular, among the Celts and ancient Greeks, and they were mainly worn by the military.
Sagum is made from a rectangular piece of woolen fabric. The Romans wore cloaks in shades of red, brown, gray, and blue, and the imperial color was purple, although emperors more often wore paludamentum. The characteristic color of the auxiliaries ' cloak is green. Celts should choose shades of gray, blue, and green, while Greeks should choose shades of red, gray, and terracotta.
William Ramsay, «Sagum», in William Smith, A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, John Murray, London, 1875 pp. 1002.