Roman Legion - Legio I Adiutrix
Legio I Adiutrix (First Auxiliary Legion — - Roman legion of the Imperial era.
Date of creation: 68 AD Lasted until the middle of the fifth century.
Symbol: capricorn, but the winged horse (pegasus) was also used. The epithet Adiutrix stands for auxiliary troops.
The Legion was created in 68, as evidenced by the found military diploma of this (68) year, which mentions the 1st Auxiliary Legion. Name “Auxiliary " shows us the fact that it was created at a difficult time to help the existing troops.
There are 3 versions of creating a legion:
1) A number of historians believe that the legion was created from the sailors of the Miseno Fleet (modern Miseno, Italy) shortly before its death by the Emperor Nero. The Misenian Fleet is the 1st largest and most important of the naval forces of the Roman Empire. Created by Octavian Augustus ca. 27 BC and was based in Misenum. It lasted until the fourth century. His task was to defend the West Coast of Italy and control the Western Mediterranean. The fleet was not manned by Roman citizens (until the edict of the Emperor Caracalla).
2) Other historians believe that the legion was created already under the Emperor Galba (June 68 - January 69).
3) The Legion began to form under the Emperor Nero, and finished its formation, and was awarded the eagle, already Emperor Galba.
- In the civil war that began after the death of Emperor Nero (54-68) (68-69, referred to in history as the “year of the four emperors”), the 1st Auxiliary Legion first sided with Otto (January-April 69), but after losing to Wittelius (April-December 69), it was transferred to Spain, where when the opportunity presented itself, it sided with Vespasian (December 69-June 79). Here is how the historian Tacitus writes about these events: "they were furiously eager to fight in order to gain their first laurels," but were defeated… The new emperor Vitellius relocated the legion to Spain "so that it could rest, living on vacation, away from military clashes." Tacitus. History II. 43 and History II. 67.
- In 70 AD, the 1st Auxiliary Legion, along with other legions under the command of Quintus Petillius Cerialus, participates in the suppression of the Batavian revolt.
- The Legion was later transferred to the Rhenish border, where it fought in border conflicts. Here he was stationed in Mogonziak (modern Mainz, Germany), together with the XIV Double Legion. There they were engaged in the construction of buildings, roads and baths, in addition to military service. However, there is an opinion that the 1st Auxiliary Legion did not leave Spain until 88 (see R. Caña. A brief history of the Legions).
- In 83 AD, during the reign of Emperor Domitian (81-96), a unit of the 1st Auxiliary Legion took part in a campaign against the German tribe of the Hutts. Later, parts of the legion, along with other vexillations from the Upper German and British legions, were building on the territory of the Lingon tribe (Northern France).
- In 86 AD, the 1st Auxiliary Legion was transferred to Pannonia, due to the death of the XXI Rapid Legion, defeated by the Dacians invading the Roman provinces. The legion's camp was located in Brigezion. Pannonia is a Roman province located in central Europe in what is now Hungary, eastern Austria, southwestern Slovakia, northern Slovenia, northern Croatia, northeastern Serbia, and northern Bosnia and Herzegovina.
- In 88, the 1st Auxiliary Legion took part in the campaign against Dacia and the Battle of Tappae. Because of the revolt of the governor of Upper Germany Lucius Saturninus in 89, success in Dacia was not consolidated, and the 1st Auxiliary Legion was sent among other forces to suppress this uprising.
- In 96, soldiers of the 1st Auxiliary Legion took part in a campaign against the Suevi (an alliance of Germanic tribes). During the reign of Emperor Trajan (98-117), the 1st Auxiliary Legion received from him the title “Loyal and Loyal " (pia fidelis).
- The 1st Auxiliary Legion took part in the Dacian Wars of Emperor Trajan (date of the wars 101-106). In confirmation of this, a tile was found in the Dacian city of Apul (now the city of Alba Iulia, Romania), with a mention of the Roman legions located in it, including the 1st Auxiliary Legion. The Legion then returned to its base at Brigadion.
- Under Trajan, the legion also managed to take part in his Parthian campaign (116-117).
-Under the Emperor Hadrian (117-138), the legion was again returned to Brigazion.
- The last decades of the first century on the Danube were relatively calm, so parts of the 1st Auxiliary Legion were used to participate in conflicts in the East and North Africa.
- It is believed that parts of the legion participated in the Parthian campaign of the Emperor Lucius Verus (161-169) in 161-166.
- In 171-175, the 1st Auxiliary Legion was commanded by Publius Pertinax (the future Roman emperor January-March 193). Under him, parts of the legion took part in the Marcomanian War (166-180) – Rome's war with the alliance of German and Sarmatian tribes.
- In the” year of the five Roman Emperors " – 193 - the 1st Auxiliary Legion took the side of Septimius Severus and fought against his opponents-Didius Julian and Pescennius Niger. Septimius Severus valued the Legion's loyalty, as he coined a number of articles that mentioned the 1st Auxiliary Legion.
- In 195 and 197-198, the unit took part in two campaigns against the Parthians, after which it returned back to Pannonia.
- In 208, under the leadership of Legate Cornelius Valens, the legion fought in Britain.
- The Legion's vexillations participated in the Parthian campaign (216-217) of the Emperor Karkalla (211-217).
- During the reign of the emperors of the Severus Dynasty (193-235), the 1st Auxiliary Legion was nicknamed the "Severus Legion".
- In the 3rd century, during the reign of Emperor Maximinus I of Thrace (235-238), the 1st Auxiliary Legion participated in a campaign against the Dacians in 237, and in 244 under Emperor Gordianus III (238-244) fought the Persians.
- Also during the third century, the 1st Auxiliary Legion received the honorary nicknames "Twice Loyal and faithful" (Pia Fidelis bis) and "Constant" (Constans).
- Coins dating back to the reign of the Emperor Gallienus (August 253-August 268) contain inscriptions mentioning a unit of the 1st Auxiliary Legion.
- At the beginning of the fifth century, according to the Notitia Dignitatum, the 1st Auxiliary Legion was still stationed in Brigecion. At this time, the Legion became a limitan and was ruled by the Dux of the Coastal Valeria province (present-day Western Hungary).
A tile fragment with the stamp of the I Auxiliary Legion. 1st century AD
Bronze plate with the text Deo Invicto / Ulpius Sabinus / miles legio / nis primae / (A) diutricis "To the invincible god Ulpius Sabinus, soldier of the I Auxiliary Legion". 1-2 century AD
Denarius of Septimius Severus with reference to the I Auxiliary Legion, 193 AD.
- Dando-Collins. "The Legions of Rome. A complete history of all the legions of the Roman Empire”"
- R. Kanya. "A brief history of the various Legions."
- Jona Lendering. Legio I Adjutrix (English). Livius.org. 2002.
- Emil Ritterling. Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft. Legio (I adiutrix). Band XII,2. — Stuttgart, 1925. — 1380—1404 p.
- Gabriele Wesch-Klein. Soziale Aspekte des römischen Heerwesens in der Kaiserzeit. — Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1998.
- Anthony Richard Birley. The Roman government of Britain. — Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
- Markus Handy. Die Severer und das Heer. — Berlin: Antike Verlag, 2009.