Roman Legion - Legio I Adiutrix
Legio I Adiutrix (First Auxiliary Legion) — Roman legion of the imperial era, formed during the crisis of the year of the four Emperors or shortly before it.
Date of creation: 68 A.D. Lasted until the middle of the 5th century A.D.
Symbol: capricorn, but also used a winged horse (Pegasus). The epithet "Adiutrix" stands for auxiliary troops.
Nicknames: Adiutrix (Auxiliary), Pia Fidelis, (Loyal and loyal), Severov, Pia Fidelis Bis (Twice Loyal and Loyal), Constans (Constant).
The Legion was created in 68, as evidenced by the found military diploma, which mentions Legio I Adiutrix. The name of the legion "Auxiliary" indicates the fact that it was created at a difficult time to provide assistance to existing troops.
There are 3 versions of creating a legion:
1) A number of historians believe that the legion was created from the sailors of the Miseno Fleet (modern Miseno, Italy) shortly before its death by the Emperor Nero. The Misenian Fleet is the first fleet of the Roman Empire in terms of importance and importance.
2) Other historians believe that the legion was created already under the Emperor Galba (June 68 AD-January 69 AD).
3) The Legion began to form under the Emperor Nero, and the emperor Galba finished its formation.
- In the civil war that began after the death of Emperor Nero (68-69, the year of the four emperors), the I Auxiliary Legion first sided with Otto (January-April 69 AD).ad), but after losing to Wittelius (April-December 69), he was transferred by him to Spain, where, as soon as the opportunity presented itself, he went over to the side of Vespasian (December 69-June 79). Tacitus writes the following about these events:: The new Emperor Vitellius relocated the legion to Spain "so that it would calm down, living on vacation, away from military clashes." (Tacitus. History II. 43 and History II. 67).
- In 70 AD, the Legio I Adiutrix, along with other legions under the command of Quintus Petillius Cerialus, participated in the suppression of the Batavian revolt.
- Later, the legion was transferred to the Rhenish border, where it participated in border conflicts. Here he was stationed in Mogonziak (modern Mainz, Germany), together with the Legio XIV Gemina. In addition to military service, they were engaged in the construction of buildings, roads and baths. However, there is an opinion that Legio I Adiutrix did not leave Spain until 88 (see R. Caña. A brief history of the Legions).
- In 83 AD, during the reign of Emperor Domitian (81-96 AD), a unit of the Legio I Adiutrix took part in a campaign against the Germanic tribe of the Hutts. Later, parts of the legion, along with other vexillations from the Upper German and British legions, were building on the territory of the Lingon tribe (Northern France).
- In 86 AD, the Legio I Adiutrix was transferred to Pannonia due to the demise of the Legio XXI Rapax, which was defeated by the Dacians who invaded the Roman provinces. The legion's camp was located in Brigezion. Pannonia is a Roman province located in central Europe in what is now Hungary, eastern Austria, southwestern Slovakia, northern Slovenia, northern Croatia, northeastern Serbia, and northern Bosnia and Herzegovina.
A tile fragment with the stamp of the I Auxiliary Legion. 1st century AD
Bronze plate with the text Deo Invicto / Ulpius Sabinus / miles legio / nis primae / (A) diutricis "To the invincible god Ulpius Sabinus, soldier of the I Auxiliary Legion". 1-2 century AD
Denarius of Septimius Severus with reference to the I Auxiliary Legion, 193 AD.
- In 88 AD, the Legio I Adiutrix took part in the campaign of Dacia and the Battle of Tappae. Because of the revolt of the governor of Upper Germany, Lucius Saturninus, in 89, success in Dacia was not fixed, and the Legio I Adiutrix was sent among other forces to suppress this revolt.
- In 96 AD, legionnaires of the Legio I Adiutrix took part in a campaign against the Suevi (an alliance of Germanic tribes). During the reign of the Emperor Trajan 's Legio I Adiutrix(98-117 AD) received from him the title "Loyal and Faithful" (pia fidelis).
- The Legio I Adiutrix took part in the Dacian Wars of Emperor Trajan (101-106 AD). This is confirmed by a tile found in the Dacian city of Apul (now the city of Alba Iulia, Romania), where Roman legions were stationed there. The Legion then returned to its base at Brigadion.
- Under Trajan, the legion also managed to take part in his Parthian campaign (116-117 AD).
- Under the Emperor Hadrian (117-138 AD), the legion was again returned to Brigecion.
- The last decades of the first century on the Danube were relatively calm, so parts of the Legio I Adiutrix were used to participate in conflicts in the East, North Africa.
- It is believed that parts of the legion participated in the Parthian campaign of the emperor Lucius Verus (161-169 AD) in 161-166.
- In 171-175 AD, the Legio I Adiutrix was commanded by Publius Pertinax (the future Roman emperor in January-March 193 AD). Under him, parts of the legion took part in the Marcomanian War (166-180 AD) – Rome's war with the alliance of German and Sarmatian tribes.
- In the year of the Five Roman Emperors (A.D. 193), the Legio I Adiutrix sided with Septimius Severus and fought against his opponents, Didius Julianus and Pescennius Niger. Septimius Severus valued the Legion's loyalty, and as a result minted a number of coins that mentioned the Legio I Adiutrix.
- In 195 and 197-198 AD, the unit took part in two campaigns against the Parthians, after which it returned back to Pannonia.
- In 208, under the leadership of Legate Cornelius Valens, the legion fought in Britain.
- The Legion's vexillationes participated in the Parthian campaign (216-217 AD) of the Emperor Karkalla.
- During the reign of emperors from the Severan dynasty (193-235 AD), Legio I Adiutrix was nicknamed the "Severan Legion".
- In the third century, during the reign of Emperor Maximinus I the Thracian (235-238 AD), Legio I Adiutrix campaigned against the Dacians (237 AD), and under Emperor Gordian III (238-244 AD) fought the Persians (244 AD).
- Also, during the third century, the Legio I Adiutrix received the honorary nicknames "Twice loyal and faithful" (Pia Fidelis bis) and "Constant" (Constans).
- Coins dating back to the reign of the Emperor Gallienus (August 253-August 268) contain inscriptions mentioning the Legio I Adiutrix division.
- At the beginning of the fifth century, according to the Notitia Dignitatum, the Legio I Adiutrix was still located in Brigecion. At this time, the legion became a border guard and was governed by the Dux of Coastal Valeria Province (the territory of modern-day Western Hungary).
List of Roman Legions, Legion, Legionnaire, Legio XIV Gemina, Legio XXI Rapax, Limitans, Notification Dignitatum
- Dando-Collins. "The Legions of Rome. A complete history of all the legions of the Roman Empire”"
- R. Kanya. "A brief history of the various Legions."
- Jona Lendering. Legio I Adjutrix (English). Livius.org. 2002.
- Emil Ritterling. Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft. Legio (I adiutrix). Band XII,2. — Stuttgart, 1925. — 1380—1404 p.
- Gabriele Wesch-Klein. Soziale Aspekte des römischen Heerwesens in der Kaiserzeit. — Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1998.
- Anthony Richard Birley. The Roman government of Britain. — Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
- Markus Handy. Die Severer und das Heer. — Berlin: Antike Verlag, 2009.