Roman Legion - Legio XXI Rapax
Legio XXI Rapax The Twenty-First Swift Legion was a Roman legion formed by Octavian.
Date of creation: 31 BC
It lasted until 92 AD (1st century AD), when it was defeated in Pannonia (a Roman province located in the Central European region, in what is now Hungary, eastern Austria, northern Slovenia, northern Croatia, northeastern Serbia, northern Bosnia and Herzegovina).
- The Legion was created by Octavian Augustus in 31 BC immediately after his victory at the Battle of Cape Actium over Mark Antony. When formed, it was named Rapax ("Predator").
- During the reign of Emperor Octavian Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD), the Legion may have taken part in the Cantabrian Wars (29-19 BC) – Rome's wars against the Spanish Asturian and Cantabarian tribes.
- In 15 BC, the legion participated in the capture of Raetia (the westernmost of the Danubian provinces of the Roman Empire, which was part of the Diocese of Italy. Today it is the territory of modern Baden, Würtenberg, Bavaria, Chatham Switzerland, Tyrol, part of Lombardy) as part of the army of Tiberius (Augustus ' adopted son and the next emperor of Rome). In Raetia, the legion encamped in Regina Castra (modern-day Regensburg, Germany).
- In AD 6, the legion participates in Tiberius ' military campaign against the German Marcomani tribe on the Danube.
- After the destruction of the 3 Roman legions of Varus in 9 AD, 21 legions were transferred to Xanten (, Germania) to ensure order and control over the Batavian and Kubernian tribes. Also, the 21st Legion took part in the retaliatory strike of Rome, against the Germans, for the defeat in the Teutoburg Forest (9 AD), then the campaign was led by Germanicus (11 AD, 14-17 AD).
- In 21 AD, the 21st Legion takes part in the suppression of the Gaulish tribe of the Tournons in Gaul (now France).
- During the reign of Emperor Caligula (37-41), the 21st Legion took part in Caligula's German company.
- In the year of the 4 Emperors (68-69), the 21st Legion supported Vitellius (Emperor of Rome from April to December 69) and took part in the battles of Bedriacus (April 69). Vitellius ' troops defeated the troops of Emperor Otto and seized power in the country. The battle took place near the village of Bedriac, in Northern Italy) and at Cremona (October 69 Gordo in Northern Italy).
- In 70, the 21st Legion took part in the suppression of the Batavian revolt, personally participating in the battles of August Treverorum (now the city of Trier in Germany) and at Castro Veter (Xanten, Germany) in July 70.
- After the Batavian revolt was crushed in 71, the 21st Legion camped in Bonn (present-day Bonn, Germany), and in 83 the legion was transferred to Moguntiak (present-day Mainz, Germany).
- In 89, the 21st Legion, together with the 14th Paired Legion, supported the governor of Upper Germany, Antonius Saturninus, who rebelled against the Emperor Domitian (81-96), but the revolt was soon suppressed by the legions of Lower Germany.
- The legions that supported the rebellion were divided and sent to the most dangerous parts of the province's border. The 21st Legion was transferred to Pannonia (a Roman province located in the Central European region, in what is now Hungary, eastern Austria, northern Slovenia, northern Croatia, northeastern Serbia, and northern Bosnia and Herzegovina). Here it met its “end” when the Sarmatian tribes invaded the province in 92 AD and destroyed the 21st Legion in the battle of the Middle Danube.
Coin XXI Rapax. Бюссель, Koninklijke Musea Voor Kunst En Geschiedenis. 1st century BC
Philip. Dedication of Officer XXI Rapax. A.D. 41-54
Tiles with the stamp of the Legion XXI Rapax from Strasbourg. Strasbourg, Rohan Palace Museum. Around 45 AD.
1. Dandelot-Collins. "The Roman legions. The Complete History of the Roman Legions”"
2. R. Kanya. "A brief history of the various Legions."
3. F. Berard, "La légion XXIe Rapax", in: Yann Le Boheck, Les légions de Rome sous le Haut-Empire (2000 Lyon) 49-67
4. L. Rossi, " Legio XXI Rapax ... atque Infidelis?", In : Jan Le Bogec," The Legion of Rome and the Empire of the Upper Classes " (2000 Lyon) 491-498.
Mainz (Germany), Landesmuseum. Tombstone of L. Marius from Legion XXI of Rapax. 1st century AD
Mainz (Germany), Landesmuseum. Tombstone of C. Marcius from Legion XXI of Rapax and his son. 1st century AD