Roman Legion - Legio XXI Rapax
Legio XXI Rapax The Twenty-First Swift Legion was a Roman legion formed by Octavian Augustus during the Republic.
Dates of existence: 31 BC-92 AD
Nicknames: Rapax (Predator/Swift)
- The Legion was created Octavian Augustus in 31 BC immediately after his victory at the Battle of Cape Actium over Mark Antony. When forming, he received the nickname Rapax (Predator/Swift).
- During the reign of Emperor Octavian Augustus, Legio XXI Rapax may have taken part in the Cantabrian Wars (29-19 BC) – Rome's wars against the Spanish Asturian and Cantabarian tribes.
- In 15 BC, the legion participated in the capture of Raetia (the westernmost of the Danubian provinces of the Roman Empire, which was part of the Diocese of Italy. Today it is the territory of modern Baden, Würtenberg, Bavaria, Chatham Switzerland, Tyrol, part of Lombardy) as part of the army of Tiberius (Augustus ' adopted son and the next emperor of Rome). In Raetia, the legion encamped in Regina Castra (modern-day Regensburg, Germany).
- In 6 AD, the legion participates in the military campaign of Tiberius against the German Marcomanni tribe on the Danube.
- After the destruction of the 3 Roman legions of Varus in 9 AD, Legio XXI Rapax is transferred to Xanten (Germania) to ensure order and control over the Batavian and Kubernian tribes. The Legio XXI Rapax also took part in Rome's retaliatory strike against the Germans for their defeat in the Teutoburg Forest. That campaign was led by Germanicus (11 A.D., 14-17 A.D.)
- In the year 21, the Legio XXI Rapax takes part in the suppression of the Gaulish tribe of the Tournons in Gaul (now France).
- During the reign of Emperor Caligula (37-41), Legio XXI Rapax took part in the German Caligula Company.
- In Year of the Five Emperors (68-69) Legio XXI Rapax supported Vitellius and took part in the battles of Bedriacus (in April 69, Vitellius ' troops defeated the troops of Emperor Otto and seized power in the country. The battle took place near the village of Bedriac, in Northern Italy) and at Cremona (October 69 Gordo in Northern Italy).
- In 70 AD, Legio XXI Rapax took part in the suppression of the Batavian revolt, personally participating in the battles of Augustus Treverorum (now the city of Trier in Germany) and at Castro Veter (Xanten, Germany) in July 70 AD.
- After the Batavian revolt was crushed in 71 AD, the legion camped in Bonn (present-day Bonn, Germany), and in 83 AD the legion was transferred to Moguntiac (present-day Mainz, Germany).
- In 89 AD, participating with the Legio XIIII Gemina Martia, Victrix supported the governor of Upper Germany, Antonius Saturninus, who rebelled against the Emperor Domitian (81-96), but the revolt was soon suppressed by the legions of Lower Germany.
- The legions that supported the rebellion were divided and sent to the most dangerous parts of the province's border. Legio XXI Rapax was transferred to Pannonia (a Roman province located in the Central European region, in what is now Hungary, eastern Austria, northern Slovenia, northern Croatia, northeastern Serbia, northern Bosnia and Herzegovina). Here it met its "end" when the Sarmatian tribes invaded the province in 92 and destroyed Legio XXI Rapax in the Battle of the Middle Danube.
Coin XXI Rapax. Бюссель, Koninklijke Musea Voor Kunst En Geschiedenis. 1st century BC
Philip. Dedication of Officer XXI Rapax. A.D. 41-54
Tiles with the stamp of the Legion XXI Rapax from Strasbourg. Strasbourg, Rohan Palace Museum. Around 45 AD.
List of Roman Legions, Legion, Legionnaire, Legio XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix, Octavian Augustus, Year of the Five Emperors
1. Dandelot-Collins. "The Roman legions. The Complete History of the Roman Legions”"
2. R. Kanya. "A brief history of the various Legions."
3. F. Berard, "La légion XXIe Rapax", in: Yann Le Boheck, Les légions de Rome sous le Haut-Empire (2000 Lyon) 49-67
4. L. Rossi, " Legio XXI Rapax ... atque Infidelis?", In : Jan Le Bogec," The Legion of Rome and the Empire of the Upper Classes " (2000 Lyon) 491-498.
Mainz (Germany), Landesmuseum. Tombstone of L. Marius from Legion XXI of Rapax. 1st century AD
Mainz (Germany), Landesmuseum. Tombstone of C. Marcius from Legion XXI of Rapax and his son. 1st century AD