Roman Legion - Legio XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix
Legio XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix The Fourteenth Legion (Twin Martian Victrix) was a Roman legion formed by Gaius Julius Caesar during the Roman Republic.
Dates of existence: 57 BC and lasted until the beginning of the 5th century AD.
Nicknames: Gemina (paired), Martia (Mars), Victrix( Victorious), Pia VI Fidelis VI (Pious for the sixth time and Faithful for the sixth time)
- Legio XIIII was created Gaius Julius Caesar for participation in the Gallic War (58-50 BC).
- The legion received its baptism of fire in Caesar's Gallic War at the battle of the Sabis River (now the Sambre River, in France and partly in Belgium) in 57 BC against the Nervii (one of the Belgic tribes).
- In 53 BC, Legio XIIII was almost completely defeated by Ambiorix, the leader of the Eburon tribe, in a battle between the Massa and Rhine rivers.
- In 52 BC, the Legio XIIII was rebuilt with new recruits and took part in the siege of Alesia (modern Alize-Saint-Rhin France).
- In the Civil War that broke out (49-45 BC) between Pompey's supporters and Caesar, the legion participated on Caesar's side.
- In this war, the Legion took part in the following battles:: Battle of Illerda-49 BC (Spain); battle of Dyrrachia (present-day Durres, Albania – - 48 BC; Battle of Pharsalus-48 BC
- In 46 BC, Legio XIIII took part in Caesar's African Company. After it, the legion was disbanded, and its veterans were resettled in Italy.
- In 41 BC, the legion was reconstituted by Caesar's successor, By Octavian Augustus.
- There are two versions of its recreation: The first says that it was recreated from veterans of the Caesar's legion and recruits, and the second version says that it was a new legion, which was given the name of the legion of Caesar. In favor of this version, the legion's symbol is a unicorn, which was Octavian's personal symbol, while Caesar's was a bull.
- The Legion was recreated to fight Pompey the Great's son Seskt, who controlled Sicily.
- In 31 BC, after the victory over Mark Antony , in the battle of Cape Actium, is transferred to Legio XIIII from the legionaries of the Legion of Antony and receives the cognomen Gemina (Gemini) and is transferred to Illyricum (the western part of the Balkan Peninsula).
- In 6 AD, the legion took part in Tiberius ' military campaign against the German Marcomani tribe.
- In 9 AD, the Legion is transferred to Mogontiac (modern Mainz, Germany). Many traces of the legion's presence have been preserved here, including the gravestone of Aquilifer Legio XIIII Gemina by Gnaeus Musius.
- In 21 AD, he suppressed a rebellion of the Turonian tribe in Gaul.
- During the reign of the emperors Caligula Legio XIIII Gemina in 41 AD participated in the emperor's military campaign to Germany under the command of the future Roman emperor, Galba.
- Under the Emperor Claudius Legio XIIII Gemina in 43 AD participated in the invasion of Britain, where he actively fought with the tribes of Britons.
Tombstone of Lucius Aemilius, who served in the Fourteenth Legion. Saalzburg Museum. 1st century AD
Gold denarius of Emperor Septimius Severus in honor of the 14th Legion. A.D. 193
Gravestone of Gnaeus Musias, standard bearer of the Fourteenth Legion. Mainz Museum, Landesmuseum. Late first century BC-Early 1st century AD
- In Britain, the Legion's camp was first located in Manchester, and then in Lincolnshire.
- In Britain, the Legio XIIII Gemina continued to remain under the Emperor Nero. During this time, he participated in the suppression of the Boudica rebellion (61 AD) under the leadership of Gaius Suetonius Paulinus.
- For this, Emperor Nero awards the legion with the title "Martia Victrix" ("Victor blessed by Mars"), which later came to be referred to as part of the cognomen.
- In 67 AD, the Legio XIIII Gemina was transferred from Britain to the Balkans.
- In 68 AD, Legio XIIII Gemina, in the year of the four emperors after the death of Emperor Nero, sided with Galba, then supported Otto, and after his defeat by Vitellius, the legion did not take any further part in the struggle between Vitellius and Vespasian.
- In 70 AD, Legio XIIII Gemina, as part of the forces of Cerialis, took part in the suppression of the Batavian revolt.
- After the uprising was suppressed, the legion was again transferred to Mogontiac (modern Mainz, Germany), where it shared its camp with Legio I Adiutrix.
- During the reign of the Emperor Domitian, he sided with the rebellious governor of the province of Upper Germania, Lucius Saturninus, in 89 AD, but after the suppression of the revolt of the Legio XIIII Gemina, he was almost never punished. Only the most active members of the legionnaires 'and legion officers' revolts were executed.
- In 92 AD, the legion was transferred to Pannonia: first to the city of Mursa (modern Osijek, Croatia), then to the city of Vindobona (modern Vienna, Austria). Here the legion took part in battles with the Suebi and Sarmatians.
- During the reign of the Emperor The Trajan Legion took part in the Dacian Wars in 101-106 AD. After their completion, Legio XIIII Gemina camped in Karnunt (now the ruins of this camp are located in the village of Petronell-Karnuntum, near Vienna, Austria). This camp would remain the Legion's base until it was disbanded in the early fifth century AD.
- In the second century, the legion took part in the military campaigns of the emperors Antoninus Pius (138-161), Lucius Verus (161-169) and Marcus Aurelius (161-180).
- In Year of the Five Emperors (A.D. 193) Legio XIIII Gemina sided with Septimius Severus and brought him the imperial purple and the throne. Participated in the battle with the troops of Pescennius Niger at the Battle of Issa (modern Gordo Issa, Turkey) in the spring of 194 AD.
- In the third century, the legion was still encamped at Carnuntum, but sent its vexillatii to participate in the military campaigns of the emperors Gordianus III (238-244) and Philip the Arab (244-249).
- In 260-261, the Legio XIIII Gemina sided with the usurper Regalian against the Roman emperor Gallienus (253-268) in Panonia. Then he again went over to the side of the Emperor Gallienus and supported him in the struggle against the Drinking of Postumus (260-268) and received in gratitude for this from the emperor Pia VI Fidelis VI ("Pious for the sixth time and Faithful for the sixth time"). Marcus Postumus – a Roman general who took advantage of the situation-problems during the reign of the Emperor Gallienus, declared himself Roman Emperor and created the so-called Gallic Empire (it included the territories of Gaul, Upper and Lower Germany, Britain and Iberia), becoming its first emperor in 260-269.
- After the death of Emperor Gallienus in 268, Legio XIIII Gemina went over to the side of the Gallic Emperor Victorianus (269-271).
- In the IV century, Legio XIIII Gemina took part in 364-378 AD in the military campaign of Emperor Valerian on the Danube.
- At the beginning of the fifth century, the legion was still stationed in Carnuntum (now the ruins of this camp are located in the village of Petronell-Carnuntum, near Vienna, Austria) and with the departure of the Romans from the Danube in 430, it ceased to exist.
List of Roman Legions, Legion, Legionnaire, Gaius Julius Caesar, Octavian Augustus, Year of the Four Emperors, Year of the Five Emperors, Legio I Adiutrix, Marcus Ulpius Nerva Trajan
1. Dandelot-Collins. Legions of Rome.
2. R. Kanya. A brief history of the various legions.