Roman Legion - Legio XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix
Legio XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix The Fourteenth Legion of the Gemina Marcia Victrix was a Roman legion formed by Gaius Julius Caesar during the Roman Republic.
Date of creation: 57 BC and lasted until the beginning of the 5th century AD.
- The Legion, like many legions under Caesar, was created by him to participate in the Gallic War (58-50 BC).
- The legion received its baptism of fire in the Gallic War (58-50 BC) of Caesar at the battle of the Sabis River (now the Sambre River, in France and partly in Belgium) in 57 BC against the Nervii tribe (one of the Belgic tribes).
- In 53 BC, the legion was almost completely defeated by Ambiorix, the leader of the Eburon tribe, in a battle between the Massa and Rhine rivers.
- In 52 BC, the newly recruited legion was rebuilt and took part in the siege of Alesia (present-day Alize-Saint-Rhin, France).
- In the Civil War that broke out (49-45 BC) between Pompey's supporters and Caesar, the legion participated on Caesar's side.
- In this war, the Legion took part in the following battles:: Battle of Illerda (49 BC, Spain); battle of Dyrrachia (modern city of Durres, Albania – - 48 BC; battle of Pharsalus (modern city of Pharsada, Greece – - 48 BC
- In 46 BC, the legion took part in Caesar's African Company, and then was disbanded, and its veterans were resettled in Italy.
- In 41 BC, the legion was reconstituted by Caesar's successor, Octavian Augustus.
- There are two versions of its reconstruction: The first version believes that it was recreated from veterans of the Caesar's legion and new recruits, the second version says that it was a new legion, which was given the name of the legion of Caesar, in favor of this version says the symbol of the legion-a unicorn, which was the personal symbol of Octavian, while Caesar, this symbol was a bull.
- The Legion was recreated to fight Pompey the Great's son, Seskt, who controlled Sicily.
- In 31 BC, after defeating Mark Antony at the battle of Cape Actium, a soldier from his legion is transferred to the legion and he receives the cognomen "Gemina ""Twin" and is transferred to Illyricum (the western part of the Balkan Peninsula).
- In 6 AD, the legion took part in Tiberius ' military campaign against the German Marcomani tribe.
- In 9 AD, the Legion is transferred to Mogontiac (modern Mainz, Germany). Many traces of the legion's presence have been preserved here, including the gravestone of the legion's aquilifer Gnaeus Musius.
- In 21 AD, he suppressed a rebellion of the Turonian tribe in Gaul.
- During the reign of Emperor Caligula (37-41), the legion participated in the emperor's military campaign to Germany in 41 AD, under the command of the future Roman Emperor Galba.
- Under the Emperor Claudius (41-54), the legion participated in the invasion of Britain in 43 AD, where it actively fought with the tribes of Britons.
Tombstone of Lucius Aemilius, who served in the Fourteenth Legion. Saalzburg Museum. 1st century AD
Gold denarius of Emperor Septimius Severus in honor of the 14th Legion. A.D. 193
Gravestone of Gnaeus Musias, standard bearer of the Fourteenth Legion. Mainz Museum, Landesmuseum. Late first century BC-Early 1st century AD
- In Britain, the Legion's camp was first located in Manchester, and then in Lincolnshire.
- In Britain, the legion continued to remain under the Emperor Nero (54-68). During this time, it participated in the suppression of the Boudica rebellion (61), under the leadership of Gaius Suetonius Paulinus.
- For this, Emperor Nero awards the legion with the title "Martia Victrix" ("Victor blessed by Mars"), which later came to be referred to as part of the cognomen.
- In 67 AD, the legion was transferred from Britain to the Balkans.
- In 68 AD, the legion, after the death of the emperor Nero, took the side of Galba, then he supported Otto, and later, after his defeat by Vitellius, the legion did not take any further part in the struggle between Vitellius and Vespasian.
- In 70 AD, the legion, as part of the forces of Cerialis, took part in the suppression of the Batavian revolt.
- After the uprising was suppressed, the legion was transferred again to Mogontiac (modern Mainz, Germany), where it shared its camp with Legion I Auditrix.
- During the reign of the Emperor Domitian (81-96), he sided with the rebellious governor of the province of Upper Germania, Lucius Saturninus, in 89 AD, but after the suppression of the rebellion, the legion was almost never punished. Only the most active members of the legionnaires 'and legion officers' revolts were executed.
- In 92 AD, the legion was transferred to Pannonia (a Roman province that included the territories of present-day Hungary, eastern Austria, southwestern Slovakia, northern Slovenia, northern Croatia, northeastern Serbia, northern Bosnia and Herzegovina), first to the city of Mursa (modern Osijek, Croatia), then to the city of Vindobona (modern Vienna, Austria). Here the legion took part in battles with the Suebi and Sarmatians.
- During the reign of Emperor Trajan (98-117), the legion took part in the Dacian Wars of 101-106. After their completion, the legion camped in Karnunt (now the ruins of this camp are located in the village of Petronell-Karnuntum, near Vienna, Austria).
- This camp will remain the Legion's base until its disbanding in the early fifth century.
- In the second century, the legion took part in the military campaigns of the emperors Antoninus Pius (138-161), Lucius Verus (161-169) and Marcus Aurelius (161-180).
- In the” Year of the Five Emperors " – 193 – the legion marched on the side of Septimius Severus and brought him the imperial purple and the throne. Participated in the battle with the troops of Pescennius Niger at the Battle of Issa (modern Gordo Issa, Turkey) in the spring of 194.
- In the third century, the legion was still encamped at Carnuntum, but sent its vexillatii to participate in the military campaigns of the emperors Gordianus III (238-244) and Philip the Arab (244-249).
- In 260-261, the legion sided with the usurper Regalianus against the Roman emperor Gallienus (253-268) in Panonia. Then he again went over to the side of the Emperor Gallienus and supported him in the struggle against the Drinking of Postumus (260-268) and received in gratitude for this from the emperor Pia VI Fidelis VI ("Pious for the sixth time and Faithful for the sixth time").
- Marcus Postumus – a Roman general who took advantage of the situation-problems during the reign of the Emperor Gallienus, declared himself Roman Emperor and created the so-called Gallic Empire (it included the territories of Gaul, Upper and Lower Germany, Britain and Iberia), becoming its first emperor in 260-269.
- After the death of Emperor Gallienus in 268, the legion went over to the side of the Gallic Emperor Victorianus (269-271).
- In the IV century, the legion took part in the military campaign of Emperor Valerian on the Danube in 364-378.
- At the beginning of the fifth century, the legion was still in Carnuntum (now the ruins of this camp are located in the village of Petronell-Carnuntum, near Vienna, Austria) and with the departure of the Romans from the Danube in 430, it ceased to exist.
1. Dandelot-Collins. Legions of Rome.
2. R. Kanya. A brief history of the various legions.