Roman Legion - Legio XIII Gemina Pia Fidelis
Legio XIII Gemina Pia Fidelis (The Thirteenth Paired Legion) was a Roman legion formed by Gaius Julius Caesar or Augustus during the Republic.
Date of creation: 57 BC
The Legion lasted until the beginning of the fifth century.
There are two theories for creating this legion:
1) The legion was created by Caesar in 57 BC to participate in the Galic War (58-50 BC), and received its cognomen Gemina " Paired” under Octavian, who restored the legion in 41 BC and gathered soldiers from various legions of Caesar under its banners.
2) The Legion was created by Octavian in 6 BC to participate in the war in Panonia and when created immediately received its cognomen Gemina " Paired” as it was created from soldiers of this and the unknown legion combined with it. This theory was supported by the famous German historian of the XIX century T. Mommsen. But this theory is refuted by the report of the Roman historian Titus Livy, according to which it was the soldiers of the Legio XIII Gemina who accompanied Caesar during his famous crossing of the Rubicon River (the border between Rome and Gaul) in 49 BC.
- The new legion received its baptism of fire during the Gallic War (58-50 BC) in the battle of the Sabis River (modern Sambre River France-Belgium) in 57 BC against the Nervii tribe.
- In 52 BC, the Legion took part in two battles: the siege and Battle of Gergovia (now the city of Clermont, France) and the Battle of Alesia (now the city of Alize-Saint-Rhin, France) in 52 BC.
- After the Gallic War, according to sources-according to Titus Livy, the entire legion, according to Suetonius, one of the cohorts of the legion, together with Caesar, made the famous crossing of the Rubicon River in 49 BC, which marked the beginning of the Civil War (49-45 BC) between Caesar and Pompey.
- In the Civil War (49-45 BC) between Caesar and Pompey, the legion fought on Caesar's side and took part in the Battle of Dyrrachia (modern Durres, Albania) - 48 BC; the Battle of Pharsalus (modern Pharsada, Greece – - 48 BC.
- The legion also took part in the destruction of Caesar's opponents in Africa, the so-called Caesar's African Company in 46 BC, where it took part in the Battle of Thapsa (modern Ras Dimas, Tunisia) in April 46 BC.
- In 45 BC, Caesar disbanded the legion and settled it in the vicinity of the city of Spello (now the city of the same name) in Italy.
- Once again, the legion, or rather a collection of veterans from several of Caesar's legions, was restored after Caesar's assassination in 44 BC by his successor , Octavian Augustus, in 41 BC. It was Augustus who gave the cognomen to the Gemina Legion.
- Legio XIII Gemina took part, in the decisive battle of the Civil War, between Octavian Augustus and Mark Antony at the Battle of Cape Actium in September 31 BC.
- After defeating Antony, Octavian transferred the Legio XIII Gemina to Gaul, and from there in 16 BC to Burn (present-day Kistanje, Croatia).
- In 15 BC, the legion was encamped in the city of Emone (now Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia), then ruled by the adopted son of Octavian Augustus and the next emperor of Rome. Tiberius. At the same time, the Legion's vexillations were sent to Noviomage (present-day Nijmegen, the Netherlands).
- In 6 AD, the legion, along with other legions, participated in the military campaign of Tiberius, against the German tribe of the Markmans.
- In AD 9, after the defeat of Quentilius Varus in the Teutoburg Forest, Legio XIII Gemina was transferred to Augusta Vindelica (present-day Augsburg, Germany).
- In 16 g. the legion was transferred to Vindonissa (modern city of Windisch, Switzerland).
- During the reign of Emperor Claudius (41-54), the legion was encamped in the town of Poetovia (present-day Ptuj, Slovenia) in Panonia.
- In the Civil War that began after the death of Emperor Nero (54-68) – the “Year of the Four Emperors” (68-69), the legion first supported Otho (ruled in January-April 69) and fought for him against Vitellius at the Battle of Bedriaca (modern village of Calvatone, Italy), but lost in April 69, was returned to the Danube, but soon held Vespasian and took part in the Battle of Cremona (June 69), where it was in the camp of the victors
Part of the inscription in the wall of Vindobona, mentioning the name of the centurion and his legion Leg. XIII Gem. RÖmermuseum in Vienna (Austria). Circa AD 84-114.
Tombstone of legionnaire Urwin of the XIII Twin Legion. Mainz City Museum, Germany. 9-16 AD
Tombstone. Baalbek – Palmyra. Syria-Temple Of Jupiter, Large Courtyard, Chaldea. 1st century AD
- In 70 AD, the legion, along with other legions, as part of the army of Cerialis, participated in the suppression of the rebellion of the Batavian tribe.
- During the reign of the Emperor Domitian (81-96), a legion in the army of Tettius marched against the Dacians in 86-88.
- After that, in 89 AD, Emperor Domitian transferred the Legio XIII Gemina to Vindobona (present-day Vienna, Austria).
- In 92-93, the 13th paired Legion participated in the war of Emperor Domitian against the Sarmatians.
- During the Dacian Wars (101-102, 105-106) of Emperor Trajan (98-117), the legion was encamped in the city of Apula (modern Alba Iulia, Romania).
- Legion in 115-117, participated in the Parthian campaign of Emperor Trajan (ruled 98-117) campaign dates-114-117.
- Once again, in a military campaign against Parthia, the legion will take part, already in the reign of Emperor Lucius Verus (161-169) in the 160s.
- Under the Emperor Hadrian (117-138), the legion's vexillation took part in the suppression of the Bar Kokhba revolt in Judea (132-136).
- Under the Emperor Commodus (177-192), the legion was commanded by the future Roman Emperor Clodius Albinus (ruled in 193-197), who then fought with the legion against the Sarmatians.
- In the” year of the five emperors " – 193, the legion participated on the side of Septimius Severus, and participated in the Battle of Issus (modern city of Iss, Turkey) against Pescennius Niger and his troops. The North won.
- The legion probably took part in the Parthian campaign of the North (197-198) and participated in the sack of Ctesiphon (now located near Qasr bint al-Qadi, Iraq), the capital of Parthia, in 198.
- At the beginning of the 3rd century, the legion was encamped in Retiaria (modern Archar, Bulgaria).
- The Legion's vexillationes took part in battles against the Alemanni during the reigns of Emperor Claudius II of the Goths (268-270) or Emperor Aurelian (270-275).
- In 295-296, the Legion's vexillations took part in the Egyptian campaign of Emperor Diocletian (284-305). After the end of the war, Emperor Diocletian left the Legion's vexillations, along with those of Legio II Flavia Constantina and Legio III Diocletiana, in the city of Babylon of Egypt (now the city of Cairo, Egypt) as a garrison force.
- At the beginning of the fifth century, the Legion was still encamped in Babylon of Egypt. There is no further information about the legion and its fate.
- It is not known why the legion received the cognomen Pia Fidelis " Loyal and faithful”, but it is known that since the reign of the Emperor Hadrian (117-138), the legion is mentioned with such a cognomen in inscriptions.
Construction tiles with the legion stamp. Private collection. 1st century AD
1. Dandelot-Collins. Legions of Rome
2. R. Kanya. A brief history of the various legions.
3. A. S. Hall, "Two Veterans of the XIII Gemini in Iconium", in: S. Mitchell (eds.), Armies and Borders in Roman and Byzantine Anatolia (1983) 35-40
4. JK Haalebos, "Römische Truppen in Nijmegen", in: Yann Le Boheck, Legion of Rome and Empire (2000 Lyon) 465-489
5. I. Piso, "Legends of the Province of the Province of Dacia", in: Jan Le Bogec, Legion of Rome, Empire of the Upper (2000 Lyon) 205-225
6. K. Wolf, "La legio XIII Gemina au Ier siècle", in: Yann Le Bohec, " The Legion of Rome and the Upper Empire "(2000 Lyon) 203-204