Roman Legion - Legio XIII Gemina Pia Fidelis
The Legio XIII Gemina (Thirteenth Paired Legion) was a Roman legion formed by Gaius Julius Caesar or Augustus during the Republic.
Date of existence: 57 BC The Legion lasted until the beginning of the 5th century AD.
Nicknames: Gemina (Twin/Twin), Pia Fidelis (Loyal and Loyal)
There are two theories for the creation of the Thirteenth Legion:
1) Legion created Gaius Julius Caesar in 57 BC. e. for participation in the Galic War (58-50 BC). His cognomen Gemina (Paired) received under Octavian, who restored the legion in 41 BC.e. and gathered under his banners legionnaires from different legions of Caesar.
2) The Legion was created by Octavian Augustus in 6 BC to participate in the war in Panonia and immediately received its cognomen Gemina (Paired), since it was created from legionnaires of the Thirteenth and the unknown Legion combined with it. This theory was supported by the famous German historian of the XIX century T. Mommsen. This theory is contradicted by the report of the Roman historian Titus Livy, according to which it was the legionnaires of Legio XIII Gemina who accompanied Caesar during his famous crossing of the Rubicon River (the border between Rome and Gaul) in 49 BC.
- The new legion received its baptism of fire during the Gallic War (58-50 BC) in the battle of the Sabis River (modern Sambre River France-Belgium) in 57 BC against the Nervi tribe.
- In 52 BC, the Legion took part in two battles: the siege and Battle of Gergovia (now the city of Clermont, France) and the Battle of Alesia in September 52 BC.
- After the Gallic War, according to Titus Livy, the entire legion, according to Suetonius, one of the cohorts of the legion, together with Caesar made the famous crossing of the Rubicon River in 49 BC, which marked the beginning of the Civil War (49-45 BC) between Caesar and Suetonius.Pompeii.
- In the Civil War between Caesar and Pompey, the legion fought on Caesar's side and took part in the Battle of Dyrrachia (present-day Durres, Albania) in 48 BC and the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC.
- The legion also took part in the destruction of Caesar's opponents in Africa (Caesar's African Company) in 46 BC, where it took part in the Battle of Thapsa (modern Ras Dimas, Tunisia) in April 46 BC.
- In 45 BC, Caesar disbanded the legion and settled it in the vicinity of the city of Spello in Italy.
- Once again, the legion, or rather a collection of veterans from several of Caesar's legions, was restored after Caesar's assassination in 44 BC. By Octavian Augustus in 41 BC, it was Augustus who gave the cognomen to the Gemina Legion.
- Legio XIII Gemina took part in the decisive battle of the Civil War between Octavian Augustus and Mark Antony 's Battle of Cape Actium in September 31 BC.
- After defeating Antony, Octavian transferred the Legio XIII Gemina to Gaul, and from there, in 16 BC, to Burn (present-day Kistanje, Croatia).
- In 15 BC, the legion was encamped in the town of Emone (now Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia). Then it was ruled by the adopted son of Octavian Augustus and the next emperor of Rome - Tiberius. At the same time, the Legion's vexillations were sent to Noviomage (present-day Nijmegen, the Netherlands).
- In 6 AD, Legio XIII Gemina, along with other legions, participated in the military campaign of Tiberius against the German tribe of the Markmans.
- In 9 AD, after the defeat of Quentilius Varus in the Teutoburg Forest, Legio XIII Gemina was transferred to Augusta Vindelica (present-day Augsburg, Germany).
- In the year 16, the Legion was transferred to Vindonissa (modern-day Windisch, Switzerland).
- During the reign of Emperor Claudius (41-54), the legion was encamped in the town of Poetovia (present-day Ptuj, Slovenia) in Panonia.
- In the Civil War that began after the death of Emperor Nero (year of the four emperors - 68-69), the legion first supported Otho and fought for him against Vitellius at the Battle of Bedriaca (modern village of Calvatone, Italy), but lost and in April 69 was returned to the Danube, but soon supported Vespasian and took part in the Battle of Calvatone. Cremona (June 69), where he was on the winning side
Part of the inscription in the wall of Vindobona, mentioning the name of the centurion and his legion Leg. XIII Gem. RÖmermuseum in Vienna (Austria). Circa AD 84-114.
Tombstone of legionnaire Urwin of the XIII Twin Legion. Mainz City Museum, Germany. 9-16 AD
Tombstone. Baalbek – Palmyra. Syria-Temple Of Jupiter, Large Courtyard, Chaldea. 1st century AD
- In 70 AD, the legion, as part of the army of Cerialis, participated in the suppression of the rebellion of the Batavian tribe.
- During the reign of Emperor Domitian (81-96), the Legio XIII Gemina, as part of the army of Tettius, marched against the Dacians in 86-88.
- After that, in 89 AD, Emperor Domitian transferred the Legio XIII Gemina to Vindobona (present-day Vienna, Austria).
- In 92-93, Legio XIII Gemina participated in the war of Emperor Domitian against the Sarmatians.
- During the Dacian Wars (101-102, 105-106) of the Emperor Trajan 's Legio XIII Gemina was encamped in the town of Apula (modern Alba Iulia, Romania).
- Legion in 115-117 years. Legio XIII Gemina participates in the Parthian campaign of Emperor Trajan. The campaign dates are 114-117.
- Once again, Legio XIII Gemina will take part in the military campaign against Parthia, already in the reign of Emperor Lucius Verus in the 160s AD.
- Under the Emperor Hadrian 's vexillation Legion took part in the suppression of the Bar Kokhba revolt in Judea (132-136).
- Under the Emperor Commodus (177-192), the legion was commanded by the future Roman Emperor Clodius Albinus, who then fought with the legion against the Sarmatians.
- In the year of the Five Emperors” (193 AD), Legio XIII Gemina participated on the side of Septimius Severus in the Battle of Issus (modern city of Issus, Turkey) against Pescennius Niger and his troops. The battle ended with the victory of the North.
- Legio XIII Gemina probably took part in the Parthian campaign of the North (197-198) and participated in the sack of Ctesiphon (now located near Qasr bint al-Qadi, Iraq), the capital of Parthia, in 198 AD.
- At the beginning of the 3rd century, the legion was encamped in Retiaria (modern Archar, Bulgaria).
- The Legion's vexillationes took part in battles against the Alemanni during the reigns of Emperor Claudius II of the Goths (268-270) and / or Emperor Aurelian (270-275).
- In 295-296 AD, the legion's vexillations took part in the emperor's Egyptian campaign Diocletian (284-305). After the end of the war, Emperor Diocletian left the Legion's vexillations along with those of Legio II Flavia Constantina and Legio III Diocletiana in the city of Babylon of Egypt (now the city of Cairo, Egypt) as a garrison force.
- At the beginning of the fifth century, the Legion was still encamped in Babylon of Egypt. There is no further information about the legion and its fate.
- It is not known why the legion received the cognomen Pia Fidelis " Loyal and faithful”, but it is known that since the reign of the Emperor Hadrian (117-138), the legion is mentioned with such a cognomen in inscriptions.
Construction tiles with the legion stamp. Private collection. 1st century AD
List of Roman Legions, Legion, Legionnaire, Gaius Julius Caesar, Year of the Four Emperors, Year of the Five Emperors, Octavian Augustus, Marcus Ulpius Nerva Trajan
1. Dandelot-Collins. Legions of Rome
2. R. Kanya. A brief history of the various legions.
3. A. S. Hall, "Two Veterans of the XIII Gemini in Iconium", in: S. Mitchell (eds.), Armies and Borders in Roman and Byzantine Anatolia (1983) 35-40
4. JK Haalebos, "Römische Truppen in Nijmegen", in: Yann Le Boheck, Legion of Rome and Empire (2000 Lyon) 465-489
5. I. Piso, "Legends of the Province of the Province of Dacia", in: Jan Le Bogec, Legion of Rome, Empire of the Upper (2000 Lyon) 205-225
6. K. Wolf, "La legio XIII Gemina au Ier siècle", in: Yann Le Bohec, " The Legion of Rome and the Upper Empire "(2000 Lyon) 203-204