Roman Legion - Legio XV Apollinaris
Legio XV Apollinaris The Fifteenth Legion of Apollo was a Roman legion formed by Octavian Augustus during the Republic.
Date of existence: 41-40 BC, existed until the beginning of the 5th century AD.
Symbol: exact information about the legion's emblem is unknown, but most likely it was either an image of the sun god Apollo, or one of the animals dedicated to this god, for example, the griffin.
Nicknames: Apollinaris( Apollonians), Pia Fidellis (Loyal and loyal)
- The Legio XV was originally formed by Caesar during the Gallic War (58-50 BC). In 53 BC, it took part in the siege and Battle of Alesia, before being stationed in the city of Aquila in northern Italy. Later, the legion surrendered to the Senate, who transferred it to Capua, and from there a little later it was transferred to Africa, where it was defeated in 48 BC.
- It was the Legio XV Apollinaris that was founded Octavian Augustus in 41 or 40 BC to fight his son who had invaded Sicily Pompey the Great, by Sextus Pompey.
- The legion's emblem was most likely the image of the god Apollo, who was especially revered and revered by the Emperor Octavian Augustus.
- The Legion took part in the Sicilian War against the forces of Sextus Pompey in 43-36 BC.
- After defeating the forces of Sextus Pompey, Legio XV Apollinaris remained in Italy until 31 BC, when it was transferred to Illyricum (the western part of the Balkan Peninsula).
- In the late 1st century BC, Legio XV Apollinaris took part in the Cantabrian Wars, the final stage of the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula by Rome.
Tombstone of Plotidius Vitaly XV Apollinaris. Bad Deutsch-Altenburg Museum, Carnuntinum Museum. Austria. Around 94-120 AD.
Stele of Titus Calidius XV Apollinaris. Carnuntum. Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum. Austria. Early 2nd century AD
Stele of Quintus Fortesius of the Legion XV Apollinaris. Bad Deutsch-Altenburg Museum, Carnuntinum Museum. Austria.1-2 century AD
- In 6 AD, he participated in the suppression of a revolt in Panonia.
- In 9 AD, after the Teutoburg tragedy, the Legio XV Apollinaris encamped at Carnuntum.
- In 62 or 63, the Legio XV Apollinaris was sent east to Syria to guard the borders instead of the forces involved in the eastern campaign of General Corbulo. Later transferred as a garrison to Alexandria in Egypt.
- In 66 AD, the Legio XV Apollinaris takes part in the outbreak of the first Jewish War. Then the legion is commanded by Titus, the future Roman emperor. During this war, the legion took part in the following battles: the siege and capture of the city of Yotapata (67 AD), where they captured the future Jewish historian who described this war, Josephus; Gamalu; the siege and capture of Jerusalem (70 AD).
- After the end of the Jewish War, the legion returned to Karnunt (today it is a ruin near the village of Petronell-Karnuntum, near Vienna, Austria).
- During the reign of the Emperors Domitian and Trajan 's Legio XV Apollinaris fought in the Dacian wars in 88-89 and 101-106.
- Also under Emperor Trajan, Legio XV Apollinaris took part in his Parthian Campaign (115-117).
Tombstone of Seius from the Legion of the XV Apollinaris. Carnuntinum Museum. Austria. Around 80-125 AD.
- Under the Emperor Hadrian (117-138), the new base of the legion becomes the city of Satala (modern Sadah, Turkey), in sevyero-eastern Cappadocia, and the vexillations of the legion are located in the cities of Trapez (modern Trabzon, Turkey) and Ankara (now Ankara, Turkey).
- In 134, the Legio XV Apollinaris took part in the Capadocian ruler's forces in a campaign against the Alans.
- In the second century, the legion took part in the 162-166 Parthian campaign of the emperor Lucius Verus. After a brief encampment in Artashat (a city in present-day Armenia), the legion was returned to Satala. In 175 AD, during the revolt of Avidius Cassius, who briefly seized power in Egypt and Syria, the legion remained loyal to the Emperor Marcus Aurelius. For this, the legion received the title "Pia Fidellis" (Loyal and loyal) from the Emperor.
- In 194 and 197-198 AD, Legio XV Apollinaris most likely took part in the Parthian campaigns of Emperor Septimius Severus, which ended with the sacking of the capital of Parthia, Ctesiphon.
- In the third century, the legion participated in military campaigns against the new Sasanian Persian Empire, the emperors Caracalla (211-217); Alexander Severus (222-235); Gordian III (238-244) and Philip the Arab (244-249). Legio XV Apollinaris probably continued to take an active part in the fight against the Sasanians.
- At the beginning of the fifth century, the Legio XV Apollinaris was still stationed at its base in the city of Satale, but without placement in the Trapeza, as it was replaced there by the vexillationes Legio I Pontica (Legion I Parthian). Most likely, after that, the legion was disbanded for an unknown reason.
List of Roman Legions, Legion, Legionnaire, Gaius Julius Caesar, Octavian Augustus, Marcus Ulpius Nerva Trajan
1. Dandelot-Collins. Legions of Rome
2. R. Kanya. A brief history of the various Legions
3. M. Sazel Kos, " The Fifteenth Legion in Emon - some thoughts ", in Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 109 (1995), 227-244
4. E. Wheeler, "Legio XV Apollinaris: from Carnuntum to Satala-and beyond", in: Yann Le Boheck, "The Legion of Rome and the Empire of the Upper" (2000 Lyon) 259-308