Roman Legion - Legio V Macedonica
Legio V Macedonica is a Roman legion (the Fifth Macedonian Legion) formed by Octavian Augustus.
Date of creation: 43 BC. e. The Legion lasted until 476, later joined the army of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Symbols: Bull and Eagle.
- In 43 BC, by order of Octavian Augustus, a new legion was formed. For the first decade, nothing is known about the Legion's actions.
- The Legion took part as boarding teams in the naval battle between the troops of Octavian and Mark Antony at Cape Actium in 31 BC. From 30 BC to 6 AD, the legion, under number V, had its own military camp in Macedonia, from which it received its cognomen "Macedonian".
- From 6 to 61 AD, the legion was transferred to Moesia (the area between the Lower Danube and the Balkan Mountains, today belongs to Bulgaria, partly Serbia, Romania and Ukraine), to the place of Esk (Oez) (modern city of Gigen, Bulgaria) to protect the empire's border along the Lower Danube from Dacian attacks. Here, the presence of the legion is indicated by the tiles found with its brands.
- In 62, the Legion was transferred to the east, to Pontus (the north-eastern region of Asia Minor) to fight the Parthians. The Legion was then commanded by the son-in-law of the governor of Syria, Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, Annius Vinicianus.
- The 5th Legion also took part in the outbreak of the 1st Jewish War (Revolt) (66-73). Then it was commanded by the future Emperor Vespasian. Vespasian commanded the legion in 66-67. During this time, the legionnaires of the 5th Legion distinguished themselves in Galilee during the liberation of the city of Sepphoris (the historical capital of Galilee, located 6 km northwest of Nazareth) in 67, as well as the legionnaires of the legion distinguished themselves during the storming of the main sanctuary of the Samaritans of Mount Gerizim (now a mountain in the center of Samaria, the southern outskirts of the city of Shechem, Israel).
- In 68-69, the legion was encamped at Emmaus (a settlement 30 km away). near Jerusalem, today it is the ruins of a settlement near the site of Latrun, a crossroads of the road from Jerusalem to Tel Aviv) in Judea as its former legate, declared emperor, enters the struggle for the imperial throne vacated after the death of Nero in 68.
- Son of the new emperor Vespasian, Titus enlists the legion to besiege and storm Jerusalem in 70 AD. After that, the 5 Macedonian Legion accompanied Titus to Alexandria and in 71 AD was returned to its old base in Moesia, in the city of Esk (Oez).
- In mid-86, Emperor Domitian (reigned 81-96) reformed the provinces as the Dacians attacked the province of Moesia and defeated the local troops. In the course of Domitian's reform, the 5th Legion was now stationed in Lower Moesia (the Province of Moesia was divided into upper and lower).
- In 88 AD, the 5th Legion took part in a campaign against the Dacians and participated in the Battle of Tappae. But in 89, the campaign ended due to internal problems in the empire.
- During the reign of Emperor Trajan (98-117), the 5th Legion was used by him in his military campaigns against the Dacians in 101-106. At this time, one of the officers of the 5th Macedonian Legion was the future Roman Emperor Hadrian (in 98).
- At the end of the Dacian campaign, the legion was transferred in 107 to the north-east of Moesia to Troezmis (modern Iglica,Romania) near the Danube Delta to protect the borders of Rome from attacks by the Roxolani tribes. The 5th Legion also took part in the Parthian Campaign of Emperor Trajan in 115-117, after which it was again returned to Moesia. Here, together with other legions located in Moesia, he alternately sent part of his units (vexillations) to protect and defend the Crimea.
- During the reign of the Emperor Hadrian (reigned 117-138), the legion was involved in suppressing the Bar Kokhba revolt (132-136), for which it was again transferred to the East, to Judea. After the suppression of the rebellion, the legion was again returned to Moesia.
- In the 2nd century, during the reign of Lucius Verus (161-169), the 5th Macedonian was again sent to the east to participate in the war with Parthia in 161-166. After that, the legion was again returned to Dacia, but encamped in Potaissa (modern city of Turda, Romania). Today in the city of Turda, a museum is organized on the site of the military camp of the 5th Macedonian Legion, where you can get acquainted with the living conditions, everyday life and service of legionnaires of this legion.
- In 185 or 187, the 5th Macedonian Legion engages in battles with a mercenary army hired by rebel gold mine workers in the province of Dacia. After defeating this army, the legion receives the title Pia Constans (Faithful and reliable) or Pia Fidelis (Pious and devoted) from Emperor Komod (reigned 177-192).
- In the” year of the five emperors " – 193, the 5th Macedonian Legion supported the candidacy of the future emperor Lucius Septimius Severus (193-211).
- For most of the 3rd century, the Legion was based in its camp at Potais. At this time, the legion managed to make war with the Carp tribe from the Carpathians and together with Legion XIII Gemini defeated them in 244-245.
- Emperor Valerian (reigned 253-260) in the 250s, awarded the legion the title Pia III Fidelis III (Thrice Pious and loyal), for which the legion was awarded the second time the title pious and Loyal unknown.
- During the reign of Emperor Valerian's son, Emperor Gallienus (reigned 260-268), the 5th Macedonian Legion received the titles Pia VII Fidelis VII, probably for supporting the emperor in his struggle against the usurpers Ingenuus and Regalian (260 in Moesia). By the way, then the legion used against them an innovation for those years, mobile cavalry.
- In 274, the Emperor Aurelian (reigned 270-275) left Dacia, and the legion was transferred, for the third time, to the city of Oesus (Escus) in Moesia. The cavalry unit established by Gallienus was separated from the legion by the Emperor Diocletian (reigned 284-305) and in 293 was sent to Egypt, where it remained until the beginning of the fifth century.
- In Moesia, the Legion's infantry units remained until the end of the Western Roman Empire in 476.
- The last mention of the legion dates back to 635, when it was already part of the Byzantine army and took part in strengthening the walls of the city of Heliopolis (modern Baalbek, Lebanon).
Coin of Septimius Severus, issued in honor of the 5th Macedonian Legion, which acted on his side during the civil war-the year of the five emperors (193)
Legion branded tile at the Legion parking lot in Potaissa
Coin of Emperor Galerius with an eagle, one of the symbols of the 5th Macedonian Legion.
- Dando Collins " The Complete History of the Roman Legions”
- R. Kanya "Legion" A brief description of the history of the legions
- Roman Glory. Ancient military art