Roman Legion - Legio IIII Flavia Felix
Legio IIII Flavia Felix (Fourth Happy Flavian Legion) — Roman legion of the Imperial era recruited from recruits and legionnaires disbanded before because of the defeat in the Batavian uprising IV Macedonian Legion.
Dates of existence: 70 AD Lasted until the beginning of the 5th century
Nickname: Antoniniana ("Antoninov"); Lat. Severiana ("Severov"); Lat. Gordiana ("Gordianov"); Lat. Pia Fidelis ("Devoted and Faithful”)
- The Legion was created in the summer of 70 AD from recruits and legionnaires of the IV Macedonian Legion, which was previously disbanded due to the defeat in the Batavian uprising (70 AD).
- The Vexillationes Legion participated in many military companies in various provinces of the empire, but the main legion forces were stationed almost all the time on the Danube border and participated in military companies on this border.
- The first camp of the new Legion was located in Dalmatia. Dalmatia is a historical region in the north-west of the Balkan Peninsula, on the coast of the Adriatic Sea, in the territory of modern Croatia (most of it) and Montenegro (a smaller part) of the city of Burne, where it replaced the Legio XI Claudia transferred to the Rhine .
- During the first years of the new legion's existence, its legate was the future famous ancient jurist Lucius Javolen Priscus.
- Historians still debate the origin of the cognomen "Felix" ("happy"). Some believe that his legion received for some military success, others that he was with him from the very beginning of creation.
- Under the Emperor Domitian (81-96 AD), veterans from the legion were settled in the town of Skupi (now the city of Skopje in Northern Macedonia).
- In 85, the legion participated in a campaign against the Dacians.
- Later, after the division of the province of Moesia into Upper and Lower Moesia, the legion most likely settled in the province of Upper Moesia in the city of Singidunum (now the city of Belgrade, the capital of Serbia).
- In 88, the legion again takes part in a new campaign against the Dacians and participates in the battle of Tapae, in which Rome won and washed away the shame of the defeat of the prefect Cornelius Fuchs in 86 from the Dacians.
- Under the Emperor Trajan 's Legio IIII Flavia Felix first built roads in the area north of the Danube (98), and then took part in the first Dacian campaign of Emperor Trajan (101-102 AD). For a short time, the legion was camped in the former Dacian capital, Sarmizegetusa (now the ruins of the city, in southwestern Transylvania, in Oresti Mountains, Romania).
- Between the 1st and 2nd Dacian campaigns of Emperor Trajan, the legion built a fort near the city of Aratus (now the city of the same name in Romania), to control the Sarmatian tribes and protect the road along the Mures River (a modern river in Hungary and Romania, a left tributary of the Tisza River) connecting Dacia and Pannonia (Roman a province in Central Europe, in what is now Hungary, eastern Austria, southwestern Slovakia, northern Slovenia, northern Croatia, northeastern Serbia, and northern Bosnia and Herzegovina).
- Then the legion took part in the 2nd campaign of Emperor Trajan against the Dacians (105-106 AD), which ended with a complete victory over the Dacians, and the transformation of Dacia into a Roman province.
- After the Dacian wars, the legion was stationed in Berzobid and guarded the Iron Gate pass (a narrowing in the Danube Valley at the convergence of the Carpathian Mountains and Stara Planina (river gate) on the border of Serbia and Romania).
- In 108-117, he was engaged in the construction of fortifications and public buildings in Sarmizegetuz.
- Vexillation legions were also stationed in the fortresses of Ampela and Boksha, which guarded the gold mines. A tile with Legio IIII Flavia Felix stamps was found there.
- In addition, the legion's vexillation was stationed in the fortress of Mykia, where an inscription made between 101-117 AD by the legion's centurion, Quintus Licinius Macrinus, is preserved on a stone in honor of his legion.
Tile IIII Flavia Legion Felix. Croatia, city of Zadar, Archaeological Museum. Circa 70-95 AD.
Altar with an inscription about the IIII-th Legion of Flavius Felix. 1st century AD
Apamea, tombstone of Valerius Magnus, soldier IIII Flavius Felix. 1st century AD
- During the reign of the Emperor Hadrian 's Legion was transferred back to Singidun in 119, where it patrolled the roads along the Mures River.
- For a short time, the Legion's vexillation was located in the city of Apula (now the city of Alba Iulia, in Transylvania, Romania), known for its gold mines.
- In the second century, the Legio IIII Flavia Felix bills often replaced the Second Auxiliary Legion, when it went on various military campaigns from its base in the city of Aquinca (now ancient ruins, within the Hungarian capital, Budapest).
- In addition, several vexillationes of the Legion guarded roads in the province of Upper Moesia.
- During the reign of the Emperor Antonius Pius (138-161 AD), the Legion's vexillation may have taken part in a campaign against the Moors.
- In the years 161-166 AD, Legio IIII Flavia Felix probably took part in the war with Parthia and the campaign against it during the reign of the emperor Lucius Verus.
- Later, under the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, Legio IIII Flavia Felix took part in the Macramon War (AD 166-180).
- In Year of the Five Emperors (193 AD) the Legion supported Septimius Severus.
- Around the year 200, the veterans of the Legion, together with the veterans of the VII Claudian Legion, were settled in the town of Naissa (now the city of Nis, in Serbia).
- When the Second Auxiliary Legion took part in the Parthian War, the Legio IIII Flavia Felix vexillationes occupied Aquinca.
- Most likely in the third century, the legion or its vexillations took part in campaigns against the Parthians and Persians.
- In the third century, under the rule of the emperors Caracalla, Alexander Severus, Maximilian I the Thracian, Gordianus III, the legion received honorary nicknames ("Antoninov”," Alexandrov”, "Maximinov", "Gordianov").
- In 235 AD, the legion fought in Germany, as evidenced by finds in the Garzbonne (mountains in Northern Germany).
- The legion also participated in one of the campaigns against the German tribe of Alemani-either under the Emperor Caracalla (213), or under the Emperor Alexander Severus (235), or under the Emperor Maximinus the Thracian in 235-236 AD.
- During the reign of Emperor Philip I, an Arab veteran of the Legion was settled in the Samaritan city of Flavia Neapolis (now the city of Shechem, Nablus, in the West Bank, Palestinian Authority).
- In 249, in a power struggle between the current Emperor Philip I the Arab (244-249) and the challenger who eventually won, Decius Trajan, the legion supported Decius Trajan.
- Under the Emperor Gallienus (253-268 AD), a coin was issued in honor of the legion (circa 260), after which it received the venerable nickname "Gallienus".
- Vexillation legion was present in Gaul under the 3rd emperor of the so-called Gallic Empire (a temporary formation that arose during the crisis of the III century on the territory of Roman Gaul) Victorine, as on his coins, there is a mention of Legio IIII Flavia Felix.
- During the period ofIn late Antiquity (IV-V centuries), the legion still existed and its vexillations participated in the military campaign of Emperor Maximian against the Bagaudians (supporters of independence from Rome in northwestern Gaul and northeastern Spain in the III-V centuries) in 285-290 AD, as well as against the usurper Carausius (the Roman emperor, the usurper, rebelled against the Emperor Maximian and ruled from 287 to 293 in Britain and northern Gaul).
- In 297-298 AD, the Legion's vexillation took part in the suppression of the rebellion of Domitius Domitian (the Roman usurper ruled in Egypt in 297). After that, it was transferred to Arabia Petraea (Arabia, a border province of the Roman Empire, created at the beginning of the II century) for the construction of a road that connected a number of important fortresses in the province.
- Presumably the Gallic vexillation of the Legion in 310 took the side Constantine I the Great.
- According to the Notitia Dignitatum around 400 the Legio IIII Flavia Felix was still encamped at Singidun and commanded by a perfect under dux Moesia Per
List of Roman Legions, Legion, Legionnaire, Marcus Ulpius Nerva Trajan, Year of the Five Emperors, The crisis of the 3rd century in the Roman Empire, Notification Dignitatum
1. Dandelot-Collins. Legions of Rome.
2. J. Le Bogaec and K. Wolf, "Legiones Moesiae Superioris", in kn .: Yann Le Boeck, "Legion of Rome-sous-Imperia" (2000 Lyon) 239-245
3. I. Piso, "Legends of the Province of the Province of Dacia", in: Jan Le Bogec, Legion of Rome, Empire of the Upper (2000 Lyon) 205-225
4. Kanya River. A brief history of the various legions.
Apamea, tombstone of Valerius Magnus, soldier IIII Flavius Felix. 1st century AD
Coin of Antoninianus Carausius with mention of the IV Happy Flavian Legion. 286-287 A.D.