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Parma

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Parma — a round shield in ancient Rome. Sometimes you can find a diminutive form of the word "parmula "(parmula).

Parma was made similarly to the clipeus from several layers of wooden boards, which were covered with leather. It was a wooden disk with a diameter of 50-100 cm, sometimes slightly bent. The edge was reinforced with metal edging (iron or brass), and a metal umbon was installed in the center to protect the brush (see scutum. There was a handle on the inside.

Parma was part of the equipment of the soldiers of the legion banner group, auxilia, as well as horsemen: parma equestris — "cavalry parma".

With the help of parma, the ancient Roman gladiators hoplomachus and equites could defend themselves.

Parma from Dura Europos (Syria). 3rd century AD
Parma, reconstruction
Flag bearers with parmas. Trajan's column. Early 2nd century AD

Related topics

Legion, Shild, Scutum, Clipeus

Literature

Parma, shield // Encyclopedia of Brockhaus and Efron : in 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additions). - St. Petersburg, 1890-1907.

William Smith, D.C.L., LL.D.:A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, John Murray, London, 1875. Parma

Parma from Dura Europos (Syria). 3rd century AD
Parma from Dura Europos (Syria). 3rd century AD
Parma from Dura Europos (Syria). 3rd century AD
Parma from Dura Europos (Syria). 3rd century AD
Parma from Dura Europos (Syria). 3rd century AD