Roman Legion - Legio IX Hispana
Legio IX Hispana The Ninth Spanish Legion was a military unit of the regular Roman army that existed from the first century BC to at least 120 AD.
Date of creation: 65 BC
The last mention of the legion dates back to 120 AD, although there are versions that part of the legion participated in later companies.
The exact date of the legion's creation is unknown, but writer Stephen Dando-Collins, in his book The Legions of Rome, believes that the legion was created in the middle of the first century BC by Pompey the Great in Spain, and then transferred to Italy in 65 BC to protect Northern Italy from raids by Illyrian tribes. During its history, the legion has fought its way from Spain to Britain, where it is believed to have died in its last battle.
- The Legion was created during the Roman Republic (in the middle of the first century BC) in Spain, and later, under Octavian, it spent a long time fighting with mountain tribes in Spain, for which it received its cognomen "Spanish". It was created to fight the Illyrians, then attacking northern Spain from the Balkans, later Pompey, handed it over to Julius Caesar for the Gallic wars (58-60 BC) in Gaul, where the legion actively fought in 58 BC.
- In the Civil War between Caesar and Pompey (49-45 BC), the legion supported Caesar. During the Civil War, the legion took part in the battles of Illera (Spain, 49 BC), Dyrrachia (modern Albania, 48 BC), and Pharsalus (modern Greece, 48 BC).
- In 46 BC, Caesar awarded the legionnaires the land of Istria (a peninsula in the Adriatic Sea, near Italy, the present territory of Croatia – its northern part) and Picirne (modern Mark, a region on the Adriatic coast of Italy) and disbanded the legion. After Caesar's assassination, in 41 BC, his successor, nephew Octavian, recreates the legion and takes an active part in the war between Caesar's supporters and his assassins.
- In 25 BC, Emperor Augustus sends a legion against the Spanish tribes. Here the legion earned its nickname “Spanish”. After Spain, where the legion spent 12 years until 13 AD, it was transferred to the Rhine River, but there is no information about the legion's participation in any companies in this area.
- In AD 9, the Legion was stationed in Pannonia, encamped near Savia (modern-day Sisak, Croatia).
- Next, we find the legion among the legions that took part in the conquest of Britain in 43 AD, during the reign of Emperor Claudius (41-54 AD). In the course of the British campaign, the Legion becomes a permanent camp in Britain, becoming the first legion to be permanently stationed in the new province.
- From 52 to 57. The legion is commanded by legate Caesius Nasicus, who was supposedly the younger brother of the legion's next legate, Quintus Petilius Cerialis (AD 31-83).
- Cerialis commanded the legion during the Boudica rebellion in Britain (61) and was sent with his legion to suppress it in 61, as the main Roman forces in Britain at that time were engaged in the military company of the Roman governor on the island of Anglesey. In the battle for the first capital of the province of Britannia – the city of Camuldon-61 AD, parts of the IX Legion are defeated and retreat, ceding the city to the rebels, who destroy it. The Legion retreated to the continent, where it replenished its ranks due to the losses suffered, and was again returned to Britain.
- In 65, the Legion was encamped in Lincoln (a city in the east of England), then was transferred to Eborac (the modern city of York in England). In York by the way the emperor Septimius Severus died in 211
- In 70, the legion again took an active part in the war with the British tribes in Britain, where it was encamped.
- In 78, the legion participates in a military campaign against the Brigantine leader Venucius, whom they defeat along with the XX victorious Valerius Legion.
- The legion is then sent to fight the German Hutt tribe, and by the year 108 it is transferred back to Britain, to a camp near York, where it builds a fortress. The legion is still mentioned under the emperor Hadrian in 117, and then the information about the legion ends.
The last mention of the Ninth Spanish Legion in Britain is a 108th-year inscription on a stone in York, England, museum in York.
The Eagle of Silchester is a Roman bronze figure discovered in 1866 in Silchester. Readig museum. 1-2 century AD
Seal of the Ninth Legion on clay tiles. Fortresses in Caerleon, England. 1st century AD
Versions of the Legion's disappearance and demise
- Version # 1. The Legion was destroyed by Britons and Celts in Northern Britain when it went to suppress another rebellion of British tribes against the Romans in 117 (this version is described in the historical films "Centurion" 2010 and "Eagle of the Ninth Legion" 2011).
- Version # 2. The Ninth Legion was transferred from Britain to Judea, not long after the Bar Kokhba revolt (132-135), during which it was destroyed.
- Version # 3: The Legion was transferred from Britain to fight in the East, where it was destroyed by the Parthians in Iran in 161. There is no exact information about what became of the legion, or why it disappeared after 122, from the lists of Roman legions in the sources.
Tombstone of Lucius Ducius Rufinus, Signifer of the IX Legion. A museum in Yorkshire. Early 2nd century AD
- Kanya R. "Legion". A brief description of the history of various legions on the XLegio portal.
- Roman Glory. Ancient military art.
- Dando-Collins " Roman Legions. The Complete History of the Roman Legions”"