Roman Legion - Legio IIII Macedonica
Legio IIII Macedonica The Fourth Macedonian Legion was a Roman imperial legion created by Gaius Julius Caesar in 48 BC to fight his former ally Gnaeus Pompey the Great.
Dates of existence: 48 BC – 70 AD.
Symbol: Bull and capricorn, possibly unicorn
Nicknames: Macedonica (Macedonian)
- Legio IV Macedonica was created By Gaius Julius Caesar in 48 BC to fight against Gnaeus Pompey the Great.
- Legio IV Macedonica received his baptism of fire at the Battle of Dyrrachia in 48 BC. Later, Legio IV Macedonica was transferred to Macedonia, for which he received his nickname "Macedonian".
- In the summer of 44 BC .Mark Antony recalled Legio IV Macedonica to Italy, where he fought for it, but later came under command Octavian Augustus.
- Legio IV Macedonica took part in the Battle of Modena in April 43 BC, where it suffered heavy losses.
- In the struggle of Caesar's assassins and his heirs, Legio IV Macedonica sided with the Caesarians.
- In 42 BC, he took part in the Battle of Philippi on the side of the Caesarians, later returning with Octavian Augustus to Italy.
- In Italy, in the winter of 41/40 BC, Legio IV Macedonica fought in the Perusinian War against Mark Antony's brother. The bullets from the sling attest to his presence during the siege of Perugia.
- In the ensuing war between Mark Antony and Octavian Augustus, the Legio IV Macedonica sided with Octavian. On the side of Octavian, Legio IV Macedonica took part in the naval battle of Actium in 31 BC.
- After Octavian's victory, the veterans of Legio IV Macedonica were settled in Veneto (the modern city of Venice, Italy).
- The augmented Legio IV Macedonica was stationed by Octavian Augustus in Tarraconian Spain after 30 BC. Here, the Legio IV Macedonica took part in the Cantabrian Wars, which lasted from 25 to 13 BC.
- Legio IV Macedonica was based in Herrera de Pisuera (the modern city of the same name in Spain).
- Veterans of the Legio IV Macedonica were settled in a city that was named Cuartango (from quattuor, "four"), another group of Legio IV Macedonica veterans, along with veterans from other legions, were settled in the city of Colonia Caesaraugusta (modern city of Zaragoza, Spain).
- As Spain became quieter after 13 BC, legionnaires of Legio IV Macedonica were engaged in construction work, as indicated by the inscriptions found.
- It is not known under which of the Roman emperors Caligula or Claudius, Legio IV Macedonica was transferred from Spain to Mogonziac (modern Mainz, Germany) in Upper Germany. It is definitely known that here he replaced the Legio XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix taken from here for the invasion of Britain. Anyway, since 43 AD, Legio IV Macedonica has been in Germany.
Coin in honor of Legio IIII Macedonica. Date: 1st century AD Haltern City Museum, Germany. The coin must have been delivered to the Rhineland by soldiers of another unit, because IIII Macedonica was never in Haltern.
A stone inscription from Spain mentioning Legio IV Macedonica .
- In Germany, Legio IV Macedonica shared its base with Legio XXII Primigenia.
- The Legio IV Macedonica vexillation was located in Bingia (modern Bingeg, Germany), which is confirmed by stone inscriptions found in this place.
- Presumably Legio IV Macedonica took part in the suppression of the rebellion of the governor of Lugund Gaul Gaius Julius Vindex in 68 AD.
- In the civil war for power that began after the suicide of Emperor Nero in the summer of 68, Legio IV Macedonica, together with Legio XXII Primigenia, took the side of Vitellius, the governor of Lower Germany, in 69. The large vexillation Legio IV Macedonica went with Vitellius to Rome, where it took part in two battles of Cremona (the 1st and 2nd Battles of Bedric). Several legionnaires of the Legio IV Macedonica were transferred to the Praetorians(Imperial Guard) for military merit .
- In October 69, during the 2nd Battle of Bedriacus with Vespasian's forces, the main forces of Legio IV Macedonica were defeated and abandoned their baggage train on the battlefield.
- At the same time, a large vexillation of the Legio IV Macedonica, led by its legate Aulus Caecina Aliena, defeated the German Helvetii tribe, occupying the Po Valley for Rome.
- In the winter of 69/70, a German Batavian tribe revolted against Roman rule in Lower Germany. During the Batavian revolt, Legio IV Macedonica ensured the security of Mogonziak (modern Mainz, Germany) and fought against the Germanic tribes of the Hutts, Usipetes and Mattiaks who joined the Batavian revolt. At this time, the Legio IV Macedonica was commanded by Quintus Petilius Cerialus. Despite the fact that the soldiers of Legio IV Macedonica did not taint themselves with the shame of surrender to the rebels, like other legions of Lower Germany and fought bravely during the suppression of the Batavian revolt, the emperor Vespasian, remembering that Legio IV Macedonica was on the side of Vitellius, dissolved Legio IV Macedonica in 70.
- From the former soldiers of the Legio IV Macedonica and the addition of replenishment, Emperor Vespasian created the Legio IIII Flavia Felix in 70 AD .
- Under Emperor Domitian, veterans of the former Legio IV Macedonica and several other legions were settled in the newly founded city of Skupi (present-day Skopje, North Macedonia).
Frontal plate of the Legio IV Macedonica catapult 45 BC
Gravestone Gn. Caelius of Legio IIII Macedonica. Date: 1st century AD Mainz City Museum, Germany.
Tile with the stamp Legio IIII Macedonica. Date: ca. 41-69 AD Mainz City Museum, Germany.
List of Roman Legions, Legio IIII Flavia Felix, Legion, Legionnaire, Gaius Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompey the Great, Mark Antony, Octavian Augustus, Legio XXII Primigenia, The Praetorians
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