Roman Legion - Legio VI Victrix
Legio VI Victrix (VI Victorious Legion) — a Roman legion formed by Octavian Augustus in opposition to the Legio VI Ferrata, which was in the army of Mark Antony.
Date of creation: 41 BC-early 5th century AD
Title: Victrix Hispanesis Pia Fidelis Constans Britannica (Victorious; Spanish; Loyal and Loyal; British; Constantin).
- Legio VI Victrix was created Octavian Augustus in 41 BC in opposition to the Legio VI Ferrata, which was in the army Mark of Anthony.
- There is also a version that when creating Legio VI Victrix for some time it was called Legio VI Macedonica, but then under the Emperor Nero it was already called Legio VI Victrix.
- The baptism of fire for the Legio VI Victrix was the siege of Perugia (Perugia, Italy) in 41 BC.e. Sling stones found in the vicinity of Perugia indicate that this legion took part in its siege.
- The Legio VI Victrix was then used to fight Sextus Pompey in Sicily and at the naval Battle of Actium in 31 BC.
- In 30 BC, the Legio VI Victrix was transferred to Tarracan Spain, where it was involved in the Emperor Augustus ' war with the Cantabrian tribe, the so-called Cantabrian Wars. The war lasted from 25 to 13 BC.
- The Legio VI Victrix remained in Spain for almost 100 years. For which he received the cognomen Hispania and the prefix to his name Hispaniensis (Spanish). Veterans of Legio VI Victrix and Legio X Gemina were among the first settlers of Cordoba, Merida and Zaragoza.
- During the reign of Emperor Nero, Legio VI Victrix received another cognomen Victrix (Victorious).
- In the Civil War of 68-69, the Legio VI Victrix did not take part, as it remained in Spain.
- Emperor Vespasian in 70 AD sends the Legio VI Victrix as part of a large Roman army north to Germany. In Germany, the Legio VI Victrix takes part in the suppression of the Batavian revolt. Legio VI Victrix is distinguished at the Battle of Xathen (modern city of Xanthen, Germany) under the command of its legate Sextus Caelius Tusk. Scientists found an inscription on the stone, where the merit of the legion, its legate and Emperor Vespasian was noted.
Tombstone of a priestess and officer of the Legio VI Victrix. Date: 1st century A.D. Museum of the City of Nimes, France.
Dedication to Romanian mothers from the Legio VI Victrix scout. Museum of Bonn, Germany. Date: 70-121 AD
Gravestone of Tavonius from Legio VI Victrix. Museum of Merida, Spain. Date: ca. 30 BC-ca. 70 AD
- After the Batavian revolt was crushed, the Legio VI Victrix remained in Germany and camped in Novesia (modern Neuss, Germany), the former base of the Legio XVI Gallica.
- In 89 AD, the Legio VI Victrix, as part of the other Roman forces of Lower Germany, took part in suppressing the revolt of the governor of Upper Germany, Lucius Antonius Saturninus, against the Emperor Domitian. For this, Emperor Domitian awarded the Legio VI Victrix the title Pia Fidelis Domitiana ("Loyal and honest Legion of Domitian"), but after the assassination of Emperor Domitian in 96, the title Domitiana was not used.
- At the end of the first century AD, the Legio VI Victrix was transferred from Novesia to Xanten. The Legio VI Victrix vexillations took part in the wars with the Dacians on the Danube.
- In the year 122, the Emperor Hadrian visited Britain and took the Legio VI Victrix with him for his retinue. In Britain, the Legio VI Victrix is abandoned and encamped in Eborac (present-day York, England). Also in Britain, legionnaires of Legio VI Victrix take part in the construction of Hadrian's Wall (Hadrian's Wall). Legio VI Victrix legionnaires built part of the wall section from Newcastle to Carlisle and a bridge over the River Tyne near Newcastle.
The altar on which the Legio VI Victrix is mentioned. Brohl City Museum, Germany. Date: 1st century AD
Tombstone of a Legio VI Victrix soldier named Agricola. Museum of the City of London, England. Date: ca. 197-ca. 300 AD
Tile with the stamp Legio VI Victrix. Date: ca. 70-121 AD Museum of the City of Bonn, Germany.
- Between 139 and 142, legionnaires of the Legio VI Victrix took part in the construction of the Antonine Wall between Edinburgh and Glasgow.
- Between 155 and 158, the Legio VI Victrix was involved in the suppression of a rebellion in Northern Britain.
- In 165-166, one of the officers who served in the Legio VI Victrix was the future Emperor Publius Helvius Pertinax (he was emperor in January-March 193).
- In the outbreak of the Civil War of 196 (Year of the Five Emperors) Legio VI Victrix took the side of the Governor of Britain, Clodius Albinus, but lost at the Battle of Lyons to Lucius Septimius Severus and was returned back to Britain.
- Upon their return to Britain, the Legio VI Victrix had to reconquer barbarian-held Northern Britain back under Roman rule.
- Legionnaires of the Legio VI Victrix rebuilt Eborac (York) and restored part of Hadrian's Wall. For this, Legio VI Victrix received the title Fidelis Constans ("The Faithful and Steadfast").
- In 208 AD, Emperor Septimius Severus arrived in Britain to conquer Scotland. Legio VI Victrix took part in this military campaign. The Legion marched north, where its base was the fortress of Kaprow (east of present-day Perth, Scotland) on the River Tay. In this fortress, in addition to the Legio VI Victrix, there was also the Legio II Augusta.
Victory Monument, which mentions Legio VI Victrix. Date: ca. 73 AD Museum of the City of Bonn, Germany.
Tile with the brand Legio VI Victrix. Date: 1st century A.D. Chester, England.
- For his success in this war, Legio VI Victrix received the title Britannica (British). Now the full name of the legions was Legio VI Victrix Pia Fidelis Britannica.
- During the crisis of the 3rd century , the Legion did not fight any wars of conquest
- In the third and fourth centuries, the Legio VI Victrix is still in Britain in its camp at Eborac (York), carrying out police and punitive functions.
- In 260-274 and 286-297, the Legio VI Victrix was part of the Gallic Empire, then independent Britain, then part of the forces of the usurpers Carausius and Alectus, and then again part of the Roman Empire, when in 297 Britain was again subjugated by Rome.
- In 306, it was in Eborac that legionnaires of the Legio VI Victrix proclaimed the son of the late Constantius I Chlorus, Constantine the Great, emperor.
- Despite the tense situation in Britain, the Legio VI Victrix still existed by the end of the fourth century.
- Perhaps in 402, the Legio VI Victrix was recalled from Britain to Rome by the general of Emperor Honorius (reigned 395-423) Stilicho, who was the supreme commander of the Roman forces in the Western Roman Empire and its de facto ruler until his death in 408.
- Nothing is known about the further fate of Legio VI Victrix after 402.
List of Roman Legions, Legion, Legionnaire, Octavian Augustus, Mark Antony, Legio VI Ferrata, Legio XVI Gallica, Year of the Four Emperors, Year of the Five Emperors, The crisis of the 3rd century in the Roman Empire
1. Kanya River. A brief history of the various legions.
2. Dando-Collins. "The Legions of Rome. The complete history of all the legions of the Roman Empire. "M. Izd." Tsentrpoligraf”. 2017
3. M. Hassall, "The Pre-Adrian location of Legionnaires in Britain", in: Richard J. Brewer (ed.), " Roman fortresses and their legions." Documents in Honor of George Boone (2000)
4. M. Hassall, "Legionnaires' Fortresses in Britain", in: Yann Le Boeck, Les legions de Rome sous le Haut-Empire (2000, Lyon) 441-457.
5. L. Keppie, " The British Legions. Legions II Augusta, VI Victorious, IX Spaniards, XX Valeria Victorious", in: Yann Le Boheck, Les legions de Rome sous le Haut-Empire (2000 Lyon) 25-37
6. A. Morillo Cerdan and V. Garcia Marcos, "New evidence of the Legions VI Victrix and X Gemina en la region septentrional de la península Ibérica", in: Yann Le Bohec, Les legions de Rome sous le Haut-Empire (2000, Lyon)) 589-607