Roman Legion - Legio VII Claudia Pia Fidelis
Legio VII Claudia (Seventh Legion of Claudius)— Roman Legion formed by Julius Caesar .
Dates of existence: 58 BC Lasted until the end of the IV century AD.
Symbols: The Bull and the Lion
Nicknames: Paterna (The Oldest), Claudia (Legion of Claudius), Macedonica( Macedonian), Pia Fidelis (Loyal and Loyal)
- Legio VII was created by Gaius Julius Caesar in 58 BC for his participation in his war in Gaul.
- For the first decade, after its creation, it was called the cognomen "Paterna" (The Oldest).
- The legion received its baptism of fire in the Gallic War (58-50 BC) of Caesar at the battle of the Sabis River (now the Sambre River, in France and partly in Belgium) in 57 BC against the Nervii tribe (one of the Belgic tribes).
- In 56 BC, he participated in a campaign against the Veneti tribe (a group of tribes that inhabited the northern coast of the Adriatic Sea, northeast of the Po River).
- In 56 or 55 BC, together with Caesar, Legio VII took part in two of his campaigns in Britain (the first attempt by the Romans to conquer this island). Then Caesar was confronted by the leader of the British dining forces named Cassiveloine.
- After that, the legion returns to Gaul again to continue participating in the Gallic War.
- In 52 BC, the legion fought twice against the leader of the universal revolt against Roman rule, Vercingetorix, at Lutetia (now the city of Paris, France) for the first time and in September at the siege of Alesia (now the city of Alize-Saint-Rhin France) for the second time.
- In the Civil War that broke out shortly after the Gallic War (49-45 BC) between supporters ofPompey and Caesar, the legion participated on Caesar's side.
- In this war, the Legion took part in the following battles:: Battle of Illerda (49 BC, Spain); battle of Dyrrachia (modern Durres, Albania – - 48 BC; battle of Pharsalus (modern Gordo Pharsada, Greece – - 48 BC
- The Legio VII Claudia also took part in the destruction of Caesar's opponents in Africa (Caesar's African Company) in 46 BC, where it took part in the Battle of Thapsa (modern Ras Dimas, Tunisia) in April 46 BC.
- In 45 BC, Caesar disbanded the legion and settled its veterans near the cities of Capua and Luca (present-day San Luca, Italy).
- After the assassination of Caesar in 44 BC, his heir Gaius Octavian Augustus restores the legion and it fights on his side at the Battle of Modena (43 BC) and the Battle of Philippi (now near the city of Philippi in Northern Macedonia) in October 42 BC.
- Probably, after the Battle of Philippi, the legion received the cognomen Macedonica (Macedonian).
- The legion then returned with Octavian to Italy, where it participated in the siege of Perugia in 41 BC.
- Probably, the legion took part in the war of Octavian with Mark Antony and participated in the Battle of Actium (31 BC).
- After the defeat of Quentilius Varus in the Teutoburg Forest (AD 9), the legion was transferred from Italy to Dalmatia to the city of Tilurium (near the modern city of Tril, Croatia), and then to the city of Burn (modern city of Kistanje, Croatia), where it shared a camp with Legio XI Claudia.
- In 42, the legion took part in the suppression of the rebellion of the governor of the province of Dalmatia, Lucius Arrundius Camillus Scribonianus, against the recently ascended Emperor Claudius (41-54). For the suppression of this rebellion, the legion received the cognomen Claudia - “Legion of Claudius”, as well as the title Pia Fidellis - “Faithful and loyal”.
An inscription from the Azrak oasis mentioning the VII Claudian Legion. Jordan. Museum. A.D. 273
Salona, tombstone of Tribonius of the VII Claudian Legion. Archaeological Museum of Split, Croatia. 6-58 A.D.
Biyachi, the tombstone of Wegnonius, a veteran of the VII Claudius Legion. Split City Museum, Archaeological Museum, Croatia. 6-58 A.D.
- Soon this title became the cognomen of the legion-Claudia Pia Fidellis - "Loyal and loyal legion of Claudius".
- In 58, the Legio VII Claudia replaced the Legio III Cyrenaica, sent along with Corbulo to his eastern base in Viminac (present-day Kostolac, Serbia).
- In the Civil War of 68-69 that began after the death of Emperor Nero (The Legion first supported Otho (reigned January-April 69) and fought for him against Vitellius at the Battle of Bedriacus (present-day Calvatone, Italy), but lost and was returned to the Danube in April 69. After that, the Legio VII Claudia supported Vespasian and took part in the Battle of Cremona (June 69), where he was among the victors.
- During the reign of Emperor Domitian in 86-88 and the Emperor In 101-102 , the Legio VII Claudia took part in the Dacian wars.
- After the Dacians, the legion participates in the Parthian campaign of Emperor Trajan.
- In 116 A.D. the legion was transferred from Mesopotamia to Cyprus, where it suppressed Jewish unrest.
- During the reign of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161-180), the legion took part in all the wars that were then taking place on the Danube.
- In the year of the five Emperors (193), the legion participated on the side of Septimius Severus, who became emperor.
- Later, the legion took part in the Parthian campaign of the North (197-198) and participated in the sack of Ctesiphon (now located near the city of Qasr bint Al-Qadi, Iraq), the capital of Parthia in 198 AD.
- In the third century , the legion was still stationed in Viminija (present-day Kostolac, Serbia), where it carried out police and border functions in the fight against the Danubian tribes.
- During the reign of the Emperor Gallienus (253-268), the legion was given the title Pia VII Fidelis VII for its support against Postumus. After the death of the Emperor Gallienus, the title granted to them was practically not used in the legion.
- Marcus Postumus was a Roman general who took advantage of the situation-problems during the reign of Emperor Gallienus, declared himself Roman Emperor and created the so-called Gallic Empire (it included the territories of Gaul, Upper and Lower Germany, Britain and Iberia), becoming its first emperor in 260-269 AD.
- In 273, the Legion's vexillation participated in the construction of a road in Jordan, which is confirmed by the discovery of a stone with a reference to Roman units building a road near the oasis of Qasr al-Azraq, in Jordan. Legio VII Claudia was also mentioned in this inscription.
- During the reign of the Emperor Diocletian 's Legion (284-305) accompanied him on a trip to Egypt (province of Roman Egypt).
- Until the end of the fourth century, the Legion was still stationed on the Danube.
- After that, there is no mention of the legion.
List of Roman Legions, Legion, Legionnaire, Gaius Julius Caesar, Octavian Augustus, Mark Antony, Legio III Cyrenaica, Year of the Four Emperors, Year of the Four Emperors
1. Dandelot-Collins. Legions of Rome.
2. R. Kanya. A brief history of the various legions.
3. J.-P. Laporte, "Legion VIIa and the Rule of the Colonies of Augustus Césarene", in: Jan Le Bogue, Legions of Rome and the Upper Empire (2000 Lyon) 555-579
4. J. Le Bogaec and K. Wolf, "Legiones Moesiae Superioris", in kn .: Yann Le Boeck, "Legion of Rome-sous-Imperia" (2000 Lyon) 239-245
5. I. Piso, "Legends of the Province of the Province of Dacia", in: Jan Le Bogec, Legion of Rome, Empire of the Upper (2000 Lyon) 205-225
6. K. Strobel, " Zur Geschichte der Legiones V (Macedonica) and VII (Claudia pia fidelis)", in the publication "State District in Galatia", in: Jan Le Bogue, Le Legion de Rome-sousse-le Empire (2000 Lyon) 515-52
Salona, tombstone of Vatinius of the VII Claudian Legion. Archaeological Museum of Split, Croatia. 6-58 A.D.