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Ancient Rome

Rome (Italian and Latin: Roma [ˈroːma]) is one of the oldest cities in the world and the ancient capital of the Roman Empire. As early as Antiquity (3rd century BC), Rome began to be frequently called "Eternal" (Latin: Roma Aeterna). Roman poet Albius Tibullus (1st century BC) was among the first to use this term in his second elegy. The concept of Rome's "eternity" largely persisted even after the fall of the ancient Roman civilization, leading to the corresponding epithet in modern languages. It is also important to note that Ancient Rome (or simply Rome) usually refers not only to the city itself but also to the Roman state formation during ancient times.

Rome was founded on the left bank of the Tiber River, 25 km from the Tyrrhenian Sea, and at almost the same distance from the Apennine mountain range, in a valley descending from the Apennines to the sea. The date of its foundation is traditionally considered to be April 21, 753 BC. The ancient Roman calendar begins from the founding of Rome.

In contrast to most European cities, the urban area of Rome constitutes only about a quarter of the total area within the city limits. Rome is also known as the "city of seven hills": originally, settlements were located on the Palatine Hill, and later, the neighboring hills of the Capitoline and Quirinal were inhabited. Subsequently, settlements appeared on the last four hills: Caelian, Aventine, Esquiline, and Viminal.

Currently, Rome serves as the capital and largest city of Italy, the administrative center of the Lazio region, and the province of Rome.

Plan of the city of Rome

Periodization of Roman history

I period – Monarchical Period 753/754 BC-509 BC (state formation, reforms of Servius Tullius).

II period – The Republic:

III period – The of Empire:

Some researchers consider the end of Antiquity to be in the 4th century AD when Christianity became dominant.

Roman Forum. Modern look.

Related topics

Royal Rome, Roman Republic, Roman Empire