Roman Legion - Legio XII Fulminata
Legio XII Fulminata The Twelfth Lightning Legion was a Roman legion formed by Julius Caesar during the Republic.
Date of creation: 58 BC Lasted until the beginning of the fifth century.
Symbol: lightning binding sign. Initially, it may be a bull.
Nickname: Fulminata (Lightning Fast). A lightning strike in ancient Rome was considered an auspicious sign from the gods. Victrix( Victorious), Antiqua (Ancient), Certa Constans (Unbreakable)
- The Legion was created, along with Legio XI Claudia Gaius Julius Caesar in 58 BC.
- Most likely in the beginning, when the legion was formed, its symbol was a bull, like all legions formed under Caesar.
- The legion began its military career by participating in the Gallic War (58-50 BC) of Caesar.
- The first Legio XII Fulminata was the battle of the Sabis River (modern Sambre River in France, part of this river flows through the territory of modern Belgium) in 57 BC.
- In 52 BC, Legio XII Fulminata fought against the leader of the Gallic revolt, Vercingetorix, and took part in the sieges of Burgas and Alesia.
- Then, during the Civil War (49-45 BC) between Caesar and Pompey, Legio XII Fulminata fought on Caesar's side and took part in the famous Battle of Pharsalus on August 9, 48 BC.
- For participating in this battle, the legion received the cognomen Victrix (Victorious).
- In 46 BC, Caesar disbanded the legion and settled its veterans in the city of Parma (now the city of the same name) in Italy.
- Once again, the legion was recreated Marcus Lepidus, a member of the second triumvirate, which arose after the assassination of Caesar in 44 BC. e. After this, Lepidus transferred the recreated Legio XII Fulminata to the command Mark of Anthony.
- In 43 BC, Legio XII Fulminata participated in the Battle of Modena in Italy on the side of Mark Antony.
- In the ensuing civil war (44-42 AD), the Legio XII Fulminata sided with Caesar's supporters. The Legion took part in the Battle of Philippi (now the ruins of an ancient Greek city on the Aegean coast, Greece) in October 42 BC. After this battle, Legio XII Fulminata was sent to quell the Perugia rebellion in 43 BC.
- After the end of the Civil War and the division of territories between Octavian Augustus and Mark Antony, Legio XII Fulminata goes to the East, where he takes part in the unsuccessful Parthian campaign for Rome (40-33 BC) of Mark Antony. At this time, Legio XII Fulminata is referred to as Antiqua ("ancient").
- In the civil war that soon began between Octavian Augustus and Mark Antony, the legion sided with Antony and took part in the Battle of Cape Actium in 31 BC.
- Octavian, after winning the civil war with Antony, settled the veterans of the Legio XII Fulminata in the city of Patras. And the updated legion placed briefly as a garrison in Babylon of Egypt, and then transferred them to Raphaenaeum.
- At the time of the Emperor Augustus ' death in 14, Legio XII Fulminata was still located in Raphaenaeum and was already called Fulminata ("Lightning"). Why the legion received such a nickname is unknown.
Records of the presence of the 12th Lightning Legion in Gobustan (Ayserbajan Nature Reserve). 1st century AD
- From 1458, Legio XII Fulminata was garrisoned in Judea and was responsible for policing and suppressing Jewish uprisings in the province.
- In 58-59 AD, Legio XII Fulminata participated in the campaign of the general Corbulo against the Parthians (58-63 AD) from Armenia. In the beginning, the legion was "lucky" and won together with the commander, but then, when Corbulo was replaced by Kessenius Peta, the legion took part in the battle of Randea (today it is the village of the same name in Turkey) and surrendered to the Parthians in 62.
- After that, the legion was again returned to Judea, where it took part in the First Jewish War that began in 66.
- In 66 AD, the Legio XII Fulminata was sent to Jerusalem to assist Hessius Florus, then procurator of Judea. When the legate Cestius Gallus, who was also the military ruler of Syria, arrived at the scene and assessed the scale of the uprising and the overwhelming numbers of the rebels over the legionaries, he decided to withdraw. The retreat ended with the terrible defeat of Legio XII Fulminata. A rebel army under the command of Elizar ben Simon overtook the legion on the march - and defeated it. To top it all off, the legion lost its banners and eagle. But the new commander of the Roman forces in Judea, the future Emperor Vespasian, believed in the legionnaires of the defeated Legio XII Fulminata, who were not broken by the defeat, but forced to "shake up" and prove to everyone that they and their legion were still alive and combat-ready.
- During the remainder of the First Jewish War (66-73), the Legio XII Fulminata, by its actions, washed away the shame of the defeat under the walls of Jerusalem in 66 and was forgiven.
- In 68, the Emperor Nero died, and the struggle for the imperial throne of Rome began (The Year of the Four Emperors). Vespasian also joined this struggle in 69. Legio XII Fulminata supported him.
- In 70 AD, Legio XII Fulminata took part in the siege and storming of Jerusalem, which ended with its fall and ruin.
- After that, Legio XII Fulminata was transferred to the East to guard the Euphrates border, to Cappadocia in Melitene.
- In 75, Legio XII Fulminata was sent to help the allied kingdoms of Iberia and Albania in the Caucasus.
- In the 1930s, an inscription on a rock was found in the mountains of Gobustan (Aizerbajan), indicating the presence of Legio XII Fulminata and its legionnaires in these places. Thus, it turns out that the Legio XII Fulminata is considered the most far-reaching legion to the East of Rome.
- During the reign of the Emperor Trajan 's Legio XII Fulminata took part in his Armenian company (114 AD).
- During the reign of the Emperor Hadrian 's Legio XII Fulminata was sent to Cappadocia in 134 AD as a deterrent to protect the province's security from the Alani tribes that had appeared on its borders.
- During the reign of Emperor Lucius Verus, Legio XII Fulminata took part in his campaign against the Parthians in 162-166.
- During the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161-180), Legio XII Fulminata took part in his war against the Germanic Quadi tribe.
- One of the moments of the battle of Legio XII Fulminata with the Quadi is mentioned by the famous Roman historian Dion Cassius in his work "Roman History": "in the hot summer (172 or 174 AD), Legio XII Fulminata, participating in the war of Marcus Aurelius against the Quadi, was surrounded in some place where there was no water and did not have opportunities for rescue. However, either the prayers of Christians or the actions of the Egyptian magician Harnuf caused the rains and the legion was saved”"
The ring of an officer of the 12th Legion. Private collection. 1st century AD
The ring of an officer of the 12th Legion. Private collection. 1st century AD
- In 175, Legio XII Fulminata participated in the suppression of the rebellion of Gaius Avidius Cassius, for which he received the title Certa Constans ("unbreakably loyal") from the emperor.
- In 193 (the year of the five Roman Emperors), the Legio XII Fulminata sided with the pretender to the Roman purple, Pescennius Niger, but was defeated in the battles of Cilicia at Cuzica and the Battle of Issus by the forces of another pretender, Septimius Severus.
- In the third century, the Legio XII Fulminata took part in the military campaigns of Emperor Caracalla (211-217) and Emperor Alexander Severus (22-235) against the Sassanids (the Sasanian state that emerged from the Parthian Empire).
- In 261, the legion became part of the army of King Odenathus of Palmyra (260-267).
- In 274, the Roman emperor Aurelian (270-275) conquered Palmyra and the Legio XII Fulminata was abandoned in Melitene (an area in the northern part of historical Lesser Armenia, between the Antitaurus and Euphrates, in ancient times was known for its soil fertility and local olives and grapes).
- During the reign of the Emperor Diocletian 's (284-305 AD) Legio XII Fulminata participated in his company in Mesopotamia.
- The last records of the legion date back to the fifth century. The Legio XII Fulminata may have existed until the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476.
List of Roman Legions, Legion, Legionnaire,Gaius Julius Caesar, Legio XI Claudia, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, Marcus Ulpius Nerva Trajan, Year of the Four Emperors, Diocletian
- Dandelot Collins " The Roman Legions. The Complete History of the Roman Legions”"