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Евсеенков А.С.

In the ancient world, headwear made primarily of fabric (felted wool) and straw, and sometimes leather, was prevalent. They were worn by both men and women of all existing peoples of that time - Celts, Romans, Greeks, Dacians, Parthians, and so on. Each region had its own peculiarities, often with headwear resembling helmets in shape. Some of the headwear found by archaeologists were likely used as undercaps.

Headwear protected its wearer from heat and cold, provided protection in battle, and served as a fashionable accessory.

Hats saved their owner from heat and cold, protected them in battle, and were also a fashion accessory.

Among the headwear of the Greco-Roman culture, several types can be distinguished:

Mosaic from the House of Orpheus. Pafos, Archaeological Park. 2-3 century AD
Image from an Etruscan burial urn. 2nd century BC
Ancient Greek wearing a headdress. Found in Apulia. Kept in the Louvre Museum, France. 4th century BC

There are more archaeological sources available to us than pictorial ones. Many headwear items have been found in Egypt, with the majority made of wool.

Liner. Mons Claudianus. 100-120 AD
Segmental headdress from Mons Claudianus. 100-120 AD
Hat made of Didymoi with cheek pads. Egypt. 1st century AD

Headwear can also include wreaths and diadems, which served as status symbols.

Related topics

Undercap, Celtic headwear, Men in Ancient Greece, Men in Ancient Rome, Women in Ancient Greece, Women in Ancient Rome, Crown


Fragment of a Greek painting of dishes with a woman in a headdress. 6th-5th century BC
Hermes in petas. Image on a black and red Attic vase. 480-470 BC
Coin with Demetrius II Seleucid in Kaussia. 2nd century BC
Agios Athanasios (a village 20 km west of Thessaloniki). Late 4th century BC
Agios Athanasios (a village 20 km west of Thessaloniki). Late 4th century BC
Terracotta figurine of a peasant with a hat. Louvre Museum, France. 1st century BC