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Hoplite

Евсеенков А.С.

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Hoplite (other Greek: ὁπλίτης — - an ancient Greek heavy-armed foot soldier, whose main weapon was a long spear. The word comes from the name of a heavy round shield — hoplon (other Greek :ππλον).

It should be noted that Hoplites have varied greatly in their equipment over the course of several centuries. Also, the equipment was different depending on the nationality. Hoplites were used in their phalanxes by the Greeks, Macedonians, Carthaginians, Etruscans, Romans, etc. It is assumed that they first appeared in the Argos army. Hoplites served in the armies of the Greek city-states and were essentially citizen soldiers, since it was the duty of a citizen of any free polis to perform military service. Therefore, any meeting of citizens was a meeting of soldiers-serving at a given time or veterans who had served. Hoplites are heavily armed Greek infantrymen. After the reforms of Solon in Athens, representatives of the most numerous class of Zeugites had to go to war, being equipped as a Hoplite. It is likely that in other Greek poleis, middle-class citizens became Hoplites during the war, since the soldier had to provide himself with weapons and equipment at his own expense.

Hoplites dominated the battlefield for four centuries, from about the beginning of the seventh century BC until King Philip II (father of Alexander the Great), the Hoplites formed the backbone of the classical phalanx.

Greek Hoplites. Black-figure painting on a vase. 7th century BC
Image of the phalanx on the Proto-Corinthian olpa. Museum of Etruscan Civilization, Rome. Around 630 BC.
Achilles and Troilus. Black-figure Attic vase from the "Tyrrhenian group", attributed to the so-called master of Prometheus. Archaeological Museum, Florence, 575-550 BC

Equipment

Hoplite Equipment:

Macedonian Hoplite, reconstruction

Reconstruction

When reconstructing a hoplite, you should carefully choose the age and region. Hoplites among the Greeks, Macedonians and Etruscans are quite different. The greatest attention should be paid to the choice of helmet, which during the existence of the phalanx in ancient armies changed the most. The next items that have the highest spell sensitivity are armor and an auxiliary weapon-a sword.

Related topics

Ancient Greece, Liner, Linothorax, Bronze cuirass, Poddospeshnik, Spear, Hoplon, Tunic, Belt, Phalanx

Literature

Barry John. Wars of antiquity. From the Greco-Persian Wars to the Fall of Rome / Translated from English by T. Barakina, A. Nikitina, E. Nikitina, S.

Samchenko, T. Senkina, A. Cech. - Moscow: Eksmo, 2009. - 2nd ed. - 232 p.: ill. - Series "Military history of mankind". — ISBN 978-5-699-30727-2. Greek Hoplite // Military-historical almanac "Soldat" / Ed. by V. I. Kiselev. - Artemovsk: Military-historical club "Veteran"; Type. "Book", 2002. - 36 p.: 6 l. incl.

Cambridge History of the Ancient World, vol. III, part 3: The Expansion of the Greek World. VIII-VI centuries BC-Moscow: Ladomir Publ., 2007. (About hoplites: pp. 405-407, 532-533, 553-557, etc.). - ISBN 978-5-86218-467-9.

Connolly Peter. Greece and Rome. Encyclopedia of military history / Translated from English by S. Lopukhova, A. S. Khromova. - Moscow: Eksmo-Press, 2000. - 320 p.: ill. — ISBN 5-04-005183-2.

Herbert William Park. Greek mercenaries. Dogs of War of ancient Greece / Translated from English by L. A. Igorevsky. - Moscow: ZAO "Tsentrpoligraf", 2013. - 288 p. - ISBN 978-5-9524-5093-6.

Lavrenov S. Ya. Armies of Ancient Greece. - Moscow: OOO "AST"; Astrel, 2001. - 48 p.: ill. - "Military-historical series "Soldat"". — ISBN 5-17-004689-8.

Nefedkin A. K. Main stages of hoplite phalanx formation: military aspect of the problem // Bulletin of Ancient History. — 2002. — № 1.

Pechatnova L. G. Istoriya Sparta (period of Archaics and classics). - St. Petersburg: Humanitarian Academy, 2001. - 510 p. - ISBN 5-93762-008-9. Second Neil. Army of Sparta / Translated from English by A.V. Krasulina. - Moscow: OOO "AST"; Astrel, 2004. - 72 p.: ill. - Series "Elite troops". — ISBN 5-17-023262-4.

Gallery

Greek bas-relief with hoplite. Around 490 BC.
Battle between a Spartan and an Athenian. V century BC
Fresco with Etruscan warriors. National Archaeological Museum, Florence. Around 360 BC.

Entrance to the tomb of Agios Athanasios, late 4th century BC