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Евсеенков А.С.

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Auxilia (Latin auxilia) - a soldier of the auxiliary unit of the ancient Roman army, recruited from non-citizens of Rome: from vassal and allied peoples, as well as from foreign mercenaries. One of the most common types of auxiliary troops was the spearmen, armed with gasta and clypeus.

Auxiliaries, in addition to spearmen, were several types-light cavalry, archers, skirmishers. All of them were united primarily by their ancestral origin. Unlike the legionnaires, they were recruited from the peoples subject to Rome, did not have Roman citizenship and, as a result, could not enjoy the rights of Roman citizens. Recruitment took place partly by hiring, partly by compulsory recruitment from dependent peoples. These warriors were not part of the regular legions, but formed separate auxiliaries , the number and organization of which could vary quite a lot. The term of service, at the end of which the auxiliary could receive the rights of a Roman citizen, reached 25 years. Units of auxiliary troops were replenished, as a rule, in the provinces where they were stationed. Quite a lot is known about auxiliaries. A large number of both visual and written sources have been preserved.

Auxiliary-spearman. Trajan's column. Early second century
Tombstone of Auxiliarus Lycaeus of the First Pannonian Cohort (Lat. Cohors I Pannoniorum). Museum of Wiesbaden, Germany. Second half of the 1st century AD
Tombstone of Auxiliary Annai Daverz of the auxiliary IV Dalmatian cohort (Lat. Cohors IV Delmatarum) from Bingium. Roman Hall Museum, Bad Kreuznach, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Second half of the 1st century AD


The equipment of an auxiliary spearman for the period of 1-2 centuries AD could consist of the following elements::

Fabric / Leather products:

Protective equipment items based on metal:

Weapons items:

Additional elements:

Not all items of equipment were used everywhere. For example, according to pictorial sources, auxiliaries often fought without armor. In addition, auxiliaries could be armed with metal gasts and perform the role of skirmishers.

Image of a Roman auxiliary with throwing gasts. Bas-relief of the pedestal of one of the columns that decorated the courtyard in front of the complex of buildings of the headquarters (praetorium and principia) of the citadel of the Roman city of Mogontiac (Latin Mogontiacum, modern. German city of Mainz). "Land Museum", Mainz, Germany. Second half of the first century AD
Image of auxilarius Aurelius Sabius with throwing gasts, from legio II Traiana fortis. Alexandria, inv. No. 252. 222-250 A.D.
Aurelius Mucianus, an auxiliary from legio II Parthica. 2-3 century AD


If we consider the most traditional image of an auxilary spearman, then we should focus on the simplest models of helmets; lorica hamata is best suited as armor . The main differences between the periods will be in the helmet, gladius and pugio, the choice of which should be approached very carefully.

You should start creating an image with the simplest things that are included in the minimum set: a wool tunic of green, blue, red, unpainted or gray shades,shoes (kaligi/calcei), cingulum.

Auxiliary, reconstruction
Auxiliary, reconstruction
Auxiliary, reconstruction

Related topics

Auxilia, Penula, Sagum, Focale, Subarmalis, Tunic, Marriages, Subligaculum, Kaligi, Calcei, Lorica squamata, Lorica hamata, Cingulum, Gasta, Gladius, Full name, Clipeus, Fibula, Liner, Socks, Legion, Legionnaire


The Auxilia of the Roman Imperial Army.pdf

Auxilia Moesiae Superioris.pdf

De cohortibus cantabrorum et de vexillis et cantabris // Sabino Perea Yébene. Universidad de Murcia. 2010

Military Encyclopedia // Edited by V. F. Novitsky et al., St. Petersburg: I. V. Sytin Publishing House, 1911-1915, vol. 3.


Auxiliary-spearman. Trajan's column. Early second century
Auxiliary-spearman. Trajan's column. Early second century
Auxiliary-spearman. Trajan's column. Early second century
Tombstone auxilaria A firm from the auxiliary Rhaetian cohort (Latin cohors Raetorum). Rhenish Local History ("land") Museum, Bonn, Germany. 1st century AD
Bosporan tombstone of Rodon, son of Helios, early 1st century AD
Auxiliary-spearman. Trajan's column. Early second century
Auxiliarus-spearman. 2-3 century AD.